PIER
 
Progress In Electromagnetics Research
ISSN: 1070-4698, E-ISSN: 1559-8985
Home | Search | Notification | Authors | Submission | PIERS Home | EM Academy
Home > Vol. 34 > pp. 313-333

APPLICABILITY OF COMBINED MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL DATA FOR SURFACE WATER QUALITY RETRIEVALS

By Y. Zhang, J. Pulliainen, S. Koponen, and M. Hallikainen

Full Article PDF (1,008 KB)

Abstract:
This paper presents the applicability of combined microwave (ERS-2 SAR) and optical (Landsat TM) data for surface water quality retrievals. Three surface water quality parameters such as turbidity,Secc hi disk depth (SDD), and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) in the Gulf of Finland are estimated using multivariate approach. The results indicate that the visible bands of TM data are somewhat correlated to SAR signals,b y which SAR can explain 14.4% of the variability in TM2 observations. Multivariate analyses show that SAR has some contribution to derive those parameters if they are somewhat correlated to the water surface oproperties. Although it may be possible to develop algorithms for surface water quality retrievals in which SAR is used as supplementary data to optical observations,it still needs to be refined sufficiently to detect differences within the range of these parameters in the area under study.

Citation:
Y. Zhang, J. Pulliainen, S. Koponen, and M. Hallikainen, "Applicability of Combined Microwave and Optical Data for Surface Water Quality Retrievals," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 34, 313-333, 2001.
doi:10.2528/PIER01071201
http://www.jpier.org/PIER/pier.php?paper=0107121

References:
1. Alpers, W., D. B. Ross, and C. L. Rufenach, "On the detectability of ocean surface waves by real and synthetic aperture radar," J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 86, 6481-6498, 1981.
doi:10.1029/JC086iC07p06481

2. Shuchman, R. A. and O. H. Shemdin, "SAR imaging of the ocean surface waves during the Marineland experiment," IEEE J. Oceanic Eng., Vol. 8, 83-90, 1981.
doi:10.1109/JOE.1983.1145549

3. Vesecky, J. F. and R. H. Stewart, "The observation of ocean surface phenomena using imagery from SAESAT synthetic aperture radar: an assessment," J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 87, 3397-3430, 1982.
doi:10.1029/JC087iC05p03397

4. Beal, R. C., D. G. Tilley, and F. M. Monaldo, "Large and small scale spatial evolution of digitally processed ocean wave height spectra from SEASAT synthetic aperture radar," J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 88, 1761-1778, 1983.
doi:10.1029/JC088iC03p01761

5. Hasselmaan, K., R. K. Raney, W. J. Plant, W. Alpers, R. A. Shuchman, D. R. Lyzenga, C. L. Rufenach, and M. J. Tucker, "Theory of SAR ocean wave imaging,a MARSEN view," J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 90, 4659-4686, 1985.
doi:10.1029/JC090iC03p04659

6. Monaldo, F. M. and D. R. Lyzenga, "On the estimation of wave slope- and height-variance spectra from SAR imagery," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., Vol. 24, 543-551, 1986.
doi:10.1109/TGRS.1986.289669

7. Bruning, C., W. Alpers, L. F. Zambresky, and D. G. Tilley, "Validation of a synthetic aperture radar ocean wave imaging theory by the Shuttle Imaging Radar-B experiment over the North Sea," J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 93, 15,403-15,425, 1988.
doi:10.1029/JC093iC12p15403

8. Nilsson, C. S. and P. C. Tildesley, "Imaging of oceanic features by ERS-1 synthetic aperture radar," J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 100, 953-967, 1995.
doi:10.1029/94JC02556

9. Bruning, C., R. Schmidt, and W. Alpers, "Estimation of the ocean wave-radar modulation transfer function from synthetic aperture radar imagery," J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 99, 9803-9815, 1994.
doi:10.1029/93JC03373

10. Vogelzang, J., "Mapping submarine sand waves with multiband imaging radar,1. Model development and sensitivity and analysis," J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 102, 1163-1181, 1997.
doi:10.1029/96JC02835

11. Klemas, V., D. Bartlett, W. Philpot, and R. Roger, "Coastal and estuarine studies with ERTS-1 and Skylab," Remote Sens. Environ., Vol. 3, 153-177, 1974.
doi:10.1016/0034-4257(74)90002-9

12. Alfoldi, T. and J. C. Munday, "Water quality analysis by digital chromaticity mapping of Landsat data," Canadian J. Remote Sens., Vol. 4, 108-122, 1978.
doi:10.1080/07038992.1978.10854974

13. Carlson, R. E., "A trophic state index for lakes," Limnol. Oceanogr., Vol. 22, 361-369, 1977.
doi:10.4319/lo.1977.22.2.0361

14. Harrrington Jr., J. A. and F. R. Schiebe, "Remote sensing of Lake Chicot,Ark ansas: monitoring suspended sediments,turbidit y,and secchi depth with Landsat MSS data," Remote Sens. Environ., Vol. 39, 15-27, 1992.
doi:10.1016/0034-4257(92)90137-9

15. Lathrop Jr., R. G. and T. M. Lillesand, "Use of Thematic Mapper data to assess water quality in Green Bay and central Lake Michigan," Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens., Vol. 52, 671-680, 1986.

16. Doerffer, R., J. Fischer, M. Stossel, and C. Brockmann, "Analysis of Thematic Mapper data for studying the suspended matter distribution in the coastal area of the Germany Bight (North Sea)," Remote Sens. Environ., Vol. 28, 61-73, 1989.
doi:10.1016/0034-4257(89)90105-3

17. Lathrop, R. G., T. M. Lillesand, and B. S. Yandell, "Testing the utility simple multi-date Thematic Mapper calibration algorithms for monitoring turbid inland waters," Int. J. Remote Sens., Vol. 12, 2045-2063, 1991.
doi:10.1080/01431169108955235

18. Dekker, A. G. and S. W. M. Peters, "The use of the Thematic Mapper for the analysis of eutrophic lakes: a case study in the Netherlands," Int. J. Remote Sens., Vol. 14, 799-821, 1993.
doi:10.1080/01431169308904379

19. Lavery, P., C. Pattiaratchi, A. Wyllie, and P. Hick, "Water quality monitoring in estuarine water using the Landsat Thematic Mapper," Remote Sens. Environ., Vol. 46, 268-280, 1993.
doi:10.1016/0034-4257(93)90047-2

20. Pulliainen, J., et al., "A semi-operational approach to water quality retrieval from remote sensing data," The Science of the TotalEnvir onment, Vol. 268, 79-93, 2001.

21. Koponen, S., et al., "Analysis on the feasibility of multi-source remote sensing observations for chl-a monitoring in Finnish lakes," The Science of the Total Envir onment, Vol. 268, 95-106, 2001.
doi:10.1016/S0048-9697(00)00689-6

22. Ulaby, F. T., Microwave Remote Sensing: Active and Passive, Vol. I, Addison-W esley Publishing Company, Reading Massachusetts, 1981.

23. Nyfors, E. and P. Vainikainen, IndustrialMicr owave Sensors, Artech House, 1989.

24. Chen, K. S., A. K. Fung, and D. E.Weissmann, "A backscattering model for ocean surface," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., Vol. 30, 811-817, 1992.
doi:10.1109/36.158877

25. Broschat, S. L., "The small slope approximation reflection coefficient for scattering from a ‘Pierson-Moskowitz’ sea surface," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., Vol. 31, 1112-1114, 1993.
doi:10.1109/36.263785

26. Zhang, Y., S. Koponen, J. Pulliainen, and M. Hallikainen, "Turbidity and Secchi disk depth analysis derived from Landsat Thematic Mapper data combined with ERS-2 data in the Gulf of Finland," The 2nd Int. Symposium Operationalization of Remote Sensing, ITC, Ensc hede, The Netherlands, August 16–20, 1999.

27. Ouaidrari, H. and E. F. Vermote, "Op erational atmospheric correction of Landsat TM data," Remote Sens. Environ., Vol. 70, 4-15, 1999.
doi:10.1016/S0034-4257(99)00054-1

28. Zhang, M., K. Carder, F. E. Muller-Karger, Z. Lee, and D. B. Gold, "Noise reduction and atmospheric correction for coastal applications of Landsat Themtic Mapper," Remote Sens. Environ., Vol. 70, 167-180, 1999.
doi:10.1016/S0034-4257(99)00031-0

29. Chavez, Jr., P. S., "An improved dark-object subtraction technique for atmospheric scattering correction of multispectral data," Remote Sens. Environ., Vol. 24, 459-479, 1988.
doi:10.1016/0034-4257(88)90019-3

30. Chavez Jr., P. S., "Image-based atmospheric corrections-revised and improved," Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens., Vol. 62, 1025-1036, 1996.

31. Gilabert, M. A., C. Conese, and F. Maselli, "An atmospheric correction method for the automatic retrieval of surface reflectances from TM images," Int. J. Remote Sens., Vol. 15, 2065-2086, 1994.
doi:10.1080/01431169408954228

32. Ulaby, F. T., R. K. Moore, and A. K. Fung, "Radar remote sensing and surface scattering and emission theory," Microwave Remote Sensing: Active and passive, Vol. II, 853-860, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Reading Massachusetts, 1982.

33. Lindell, T., D. Pierson, G. Premazzi, and E. Zilioli, "Man ual for monitoring European lakes using remote sensing techniques,(Luxembourg: Official Publications of the European Communities),", EUR 18665 EN, 1999.

34. Eloheimo, K., T. Hannonen, P . Harma, T. Pyhalahti, S. Koponen, J. Pulliainen, and H. Servomaa, "Coastal monitoring using satellite,airb orne and in situ data in the archipelago of Baltic Sea," Proceed. 5th Int. Conference Remote Sens. Marine and Coastal Environ., San Diego, USA, Oct. 5–7, 1998.

35. Hallikainen, M., "Development of sensors and methods for remote sensing of Northern areas by HUT laboratory of space technology," IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Newsletter, ISSN 0161- 7869, Vol. 107, 10-11, Dec. 1999.

36. Zhang, Y., S. Koponen, J. Pulliainen, and M. Hallikainen, "Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data analysis for chlorophyll-a and turbidity in the Gulf of Finland," URSI/Remote Sensing Club of Finland/IEEE XXIII Convention on Radio Science and Remote Sensing Symposium, 69-70, Espoo, Finland, August 24–25, 1998.

37. Zhang, Y., J. Pulliainen, S. Koponen, and M. Hallikainen, "Water quality retrievals from combined Landsat TM data and ERS-2 SAR data in the Gulf of Finland," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 2000 (submitted).

38. Bukata, R. P., J. H. Jerome, K. Y. A. Kondratyev, and D. V. Pozdnyakov, OpticalPr operties and Remote Sensing of Inland Coastal Waters, CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton, Florida, 1995.

39. Tassan, S., "Evaluation of the potential of the Thematic Mapper for marine application," Int. J. Remote Sens., Vol. 8, 1455-1478, 1987.
doi:10.1080/01431168708954789


© Copyright 2014 EMW Publishing. All Rights Reserved