Vol. 41

Front:[PDF file] Back:[PDF file]
Latest Volume
All Volumes
All Issues

Microwave Applications of Photonic Crystals

By
Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 41, 185-209, 2003
doi:10.2528/PIER02010808

Abstract

We have demonstrated guiding and bending of electromagnetic (EM) waves in planar and coupled-cavity waveguides built around three-dimensional layer-by-layer photonic crystals. We observed full transmission of the EM waves through these waveguide structures. The dispersion relations obtained from the experiments were in good agreement with the predictions of our waveguide models. We also reported a resonant cavity enhanced (RCE) effect by placing microwave detectors in defect structures. A power enhancement factor of 3450 was measured for planar cavity structures. Similar defects were used to achieve highly directional patterns from monopole antennas.

Citation

 (See works that cites this article)
, "Microwave Applications of Photonic Crystals," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 41, 185-209, 2003.
doi:10.2528/PIER02010808
http://www.jpier.org/PIER/pier.php?paper=0201088

References


    1. Yablonovitch, E., "Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics," Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol. 58, 1987.

    2. John, S., "Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices," Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol. 58, 1987.

    3. Joannopoulos, J. D., R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1995.

    4. For a recent review, see articles in, see articles in, Photonic Crystals and Light Localization in the 21st Century, C. M. Soukoulis (ed.), Kluwer, Dortrecht, 2001.

    5. Wanke, M. C., O. Lehmann, K. Muller, Q. Wen, and M. Stuke, "Laser rapid prototyping of photonic band-gap microstructures," Science, Vol. 275, 1997.

    6. Temelkuran, B., E. Ozbay, J. P. Kavanaugh, G. Tuttle, and K. M. Ho, "Resonant cavity enhanced detectors embedded in photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 72, 1998.

    7. Temelkuran, B. and E. Ozbay, "Experimental demonstration of photonic crystal based waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 74, 1999.

    8. Temelkuran, B., M. Bayindir, E. Ozbay, R. Biswas, M. M. Sigalas, G. Tuttle, and K. M. Ho, "Photonic crystal based resonant antenna with a very high directivity," J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 87, 2000.

    9. Lin, S. Y., J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, "A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelength," Nature (London), Vol. 394, 1998.

    10. Fleming, J. G. and S.-Y. Lin, "Three-dimensional photonic crystal with a stop band from 1.35 to 1.95 μm," Opt. Lett., Vol. 24, 1999.

    11. Noda, S., K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, "Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelengths," Science, Vol. 289, 2000.

    12. Villeneuve, P. R., S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, K.-Y. Lim, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, and R. Reif, "Air-bridge microcavities," Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 67, 1995.

    13. Gourley, P. L., J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, T. M. Brennan, and B. E. Hammons, "Optical properties of two dimensional photonic lattices fabricated as honeycomb nanostructures in compound semiconductors," Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 64, 1994.

    14. Dowling, J. P., M. Scalora, M. J. Bloemer, and C. M. Bowden, "The photonic band edge laser: a new approach to gain enhancement," J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 75, 1994.

    15. Yablonovitch, E., T. J. Gmitter, R. D. Meade, A. M. Rappe, K. D. Brommer, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Donor and acceptor modes in photonic band structure," Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol. 67, 1991.

    16. Painter, O., R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O'Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, "Two-dimensional photonic band-gap defect mode laser," Science, Vol. 284, 1999.

    17. Mekis, A., M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, R. E. Slusher, and J. D. Jaonnopoulos, "Lasing mechanism in two-dimensional photonic crystal lasers," Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process, Vol. 69, 1999.

    18. Bayindir, M., B. Temelkuran, and E. Ozbay, "Tight-binding description of the coupled defect modes in three-dimensional photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol. 84, 2000.

    19. Bayindir, M., B. Temelkuran, and E. Ozbay, "Propagation of photons by hopping: a waveguiding mechanism through localized coupled-cavities in three-dimensional photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B, Vol. 61, 2000.

    20. Ho, K. M., C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, "Photonic band gaps in three dimensions: new layerby- layer periodic structures," Solid State Commun., Vol. 89, 1994.

    21. Ozbay, E., "Layer-by-layer photonic band gap crystals: from microwave to the far-infrared," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, Vol. 13, 1996.

    22. Ozbay, E., A. Abeyta, G. Tuttle, M. Tringides, R. Biswas, C. T. Chan, C. Soukoulis, and K. M. Ho, "Measurement of a three-dimensional photonic band gap in a crystal structure made of dielectric rods," Phys. Rev. B, Vol. 50, 1994.

    23. Ozbay, E. and B. Temelkuran, "Reflection properties and defect formation in photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 69, 1996.

    24. Kosaka, H., T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, "Photonic crystals for micro lightwave circuits using wavelength-dependent angular beam steering," Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 74, 1999.

    25. de Lustrac, A., F. Gadot, S. Cabaret, J.-M. Lourtioz, T. Brillat, A. Priou, and E. Akmansoy, "Experimental demonstration of electrically controllable photonic crystals at centimenter wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 75, 1999.

    26. Mekis, A., J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. Fan, P. R. Velleneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Hight transmission through sharp bends in photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol. 77, 1996.

    27. Lin, S.-Y., E. Chow, V. Hietala, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Experimental demonstration of guiding and bending of electromagnetic waves in a photonic crystal," Science, Vol. 282, 1998.

    28. Sigalas, M. M., R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, C. M. Soukoulis, D. Turner, B. Vasiliu, S. C. Kothari, and S. Lin, "Waveguide bends in threedimensional layer-by-layer photonic bandgap materials," Micro. Opt. Tech. Lett., Vol. 23, 1999.

    29. Baba, T., N. Fukaya, and J. Yonekura, "Observation of light propagation in photonic crystal optical waveguides with bends," Electron. Lett., Vol. 35, 1999.

    30. Tokushima, M., H. Kosaka, A. Tomita, and H. Yamada, "Lightwave propagation through a 120â—¦ sharply bent single-line-defect photonic crystal waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 76, 2000.

    31. Loncar, M., D. Nedeljkovic, T. Doll, J. Vuckovic, A. Scherer, and T. P. Pearsall, "Waveguiding in planar photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 77, 2000.

    32. Johnson, S. G., P. R. Villeneuve, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Linear waveguides in photonic-crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B, Vol. 62, 2000.

    33. Noda, S., A. Chutinan, and M. Imada, "Trapping and emission of photons by a single defect in a photonic bandgap structure," Nature (London), Vol. 407, 2000.

    34. Jackson, J. D., Classical Electrodynamics, 2nd ed., Wiley, New York, 1975.

    35. Stefanou, N. and A. Modinos, "Impurity bands in photonic insulators," Phys. Rev. B, Vol. 57, 12127, 1998.

    36. de Sterke, C. M., "Superstructure gratings in the tight-binding approximation," Phys. Rev. E, Vol. 57, 1998.

    37. Lidorikis, E., M. M. Sigalas, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Tight-binding parametrization for photonic band gap materials," Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol. 81, 1998.

    38. Yariv, A., Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Scherer, "Coupled-resonator optical waveguide: a proposal and analysis,'' Opt. Lett., Vol. 24, No. 711, 1999; Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, Propagation and second-harmonic generation of electromagnetic waves in a coupled-resonator optical waveguide," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, Vol. 17, No. ``Coupled-resonator optical waveguide: a proposal and analysis,'' Opt. Lett., Vol. 24, 711, 1999; Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, ``Propagation and second-harmonic generation of electromagnetic waves in a coupled-resonator optical waveguide, 2000.

    39. Robertson, W. M., G. Arjavalingam, R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Measurement of photonic band structure in a two-dimensional periodic dielectric array," Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol. 68, 1992.

    40. Sakoda, K., "Enhanced light ampli cation due to group-velocity anomaly peculiar to two-and three-dimensional photonic crystals," Opt. Express, Vol. 4, 1999.

    41. Unlu, M. S. and S. Strite, "Resonant cavity enhanced photonic devices," J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 78, 1995.

    42. Brown, E. R., C. D. Parker, and E. Yablonovitch, "Radiation properties of a planar antenna on a photonic-crystal substrate," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, Vol. 10, 1993.

    43. Sigalas, M. M., R. Biswas, Q. Li, D. Crouch, W. Leung, R. Jacobs- Woodbury, B. Lough, S. Nielsen, S. McCalmont, G. Tuttle, and K. M. Ho, "Dipole antennas on photonic bandgap crystals: experiment and simulation," Micro. Opt. Tech. Lett., Vol. 15, 1997.

    44. Brown, E. R. and O. B. McMahon, "High zenithal directivity from a dipole antenna on a photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 68, 1996.

    45. Gonzalo, R., P. de Maagt, and M. Sorolla, "Enhanced patchantenna performance by suppressing surface waves using photonicbandgap substrates," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., Vol. 47, 1999.

    46. Poilasne, G., P. Pouliguen, K. Mahdjoubi, J. Lenormand, C. Terret, and Ph. Gelin, "Theoretical study of grating lobes reduction using metallic photonic bandgap materials (MPBG)," Micro. Opt. Tech. Lett., Vol. 18, 1998.

    47. Thevenot, M., C. Cheype, A. Reineix, and B. Jecko, "Directive photonic-bandgap antennas," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., Vol. 47, 1999.

    48. Yariv, A. and P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals, Wiley, New York, 1984.

    49. Schubert, E. F., N. E. J. Hunt, A. M. Vredenberg, T. D. Harris, J. M. Poate, D. C. Jacobson, Y. H. Wong, and G. J. Zydzik, "Increased fiber communications bandwidth from a resonant cavity light emitting diode emitting at λ = 940 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 63, 1993.