Progress In Electromagnetics Research
ISSN: 1070-4698, E-ISSN: 1559-8985
Home | Search | Notification | Authors | Submission | PIERS Home | EM Academy
Home > Vol. 71 > pp. 109-127


By Z. Fan, S. Qiao, J. T. Huang-Fu, and L.-X. Ran

Full Article PDF (525 KB)

In this paper, signal descriptions and formulations for the radio frequency (RF) front-end of a passive backscatter radio frequency identification (RFID) reader working at ultra high frequencies (UHF) are discussed in detail, and a set of design considerations aiming to improve the read range are outlined. The reader's architecture is proposed and the design details of its RF frond-end are presented. The read range is formulated through calculating the time-averaging power absorbed by the tag and the signal-noise-ratio (SNR) of the demodulation, and accordingly RFID systems can be classified into tag-determining and reader-determining ones. It is concluded that the gain of the reader antenna, the phase noise of the local oscillation (LO) and the receive-transmit isolation coefficient dominate the demodulation output noise of the reader, and consequently the readerdetermining maximum operational distance. A prototype reader working at the frequency of 915MHz was built with off-the-shelf components and was evaluated with a commercial tag in an indoor environment. The measured results show that this RFID system is of tag-determining and has a read range of 8.4 meters, which are in good agreement with the calculated results.

Citation: (See works that cites this article)
Z. Fan, S. Qiao, J. T. Huang-Fu, and L.-X. Ran, "Signal Descriptions and Formulations for Long Range UHF RFID Readers," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 71, 109-127, 2007.

1. Landt, J., "The history of RFID," IEEE Potentials, Vol. 24, No. 4, 8-11, 2005.

2. Brown, W. C., "The history of power transmission by radio waves," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., Vol. 32, No. 9, 1230-1242, 1984.

3. Stockman, H., Communication by means of reflected power, Proc. IRE, 1196-1204, 1948.

4. Harrington, R. F., Theory of loaded scatterers, Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng., Vol. 111, No. 4, 617-623, 1964.

5. Ko elle, A., S. Depp, and R. Freyman, Short-range radiotelemetry for electronic identification using modulated backscatter, Proc. IEEE, Vol. 63, No. 8, 1260-1260, 1975.

6. Blythe, P. T., "RFID for road tolling, road-use pricing and vehicle access control," Inst. Elec. Eng. Colloquium on RFID Technol., No. 10, 1-8, 1999.

7. Bansal, R., "Coming soon to a Wal-Mart near you," IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag., Vol. 45, No. 12, 105-106, 2003.

8. Glidden R., et al., "Design of ultra-low-cost UHF RFID tags for supply chain application," IEEE Communication Magazine, No. 8, 140-151, 2004.

9. Finkenzeller, K., RFID Handbook: Radio-Frequency Identification Fundamentals and Applications, 2nd Ed., Wiley, New York, 2003.

10. Rao, K. V. S., P. V. Nikitin, and S. F. Lam, "Antenna design for UHF RFID tags: a review and a practical application," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 53, No. 12, 3870-3876, 2005.

11. Foster, P. R. and R. A. Burberry, "Antenna problems in RFID systems," IEE Colloq. RFID Technol., 31-35, 1999.

12. Karthaus, U. and M. Fischer, "Fully integrated passive UHF RFID transponder IC with 16.7-μW minimum RF input power," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 38, No. 10, 1602-1608, 2003.

13. De Vita, G. and G. Iannaccone, "Design criteria for the RF section of UHF and microwave passive RFID transponders," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., Vol. 53, No. 9, 2978-2990, 2005.

14. Curty, J.-P., et al., "Remotely powered addressable UHF RFID integrated system," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 40, No. 11, 2193-2202, 2005.

15. Zhang, M., Y. Chen, Y. Jiao, and F. Zhang, "Dual circularly polarized antenna of compact structure for RFID application," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 20, No. 14, 1895-1902, 2006.

16. Ruck, G. T., et al., Radar Cross Section Handbook, Vol. 1-2, Plenum, New York, 1970.

17. Saunders, W. K. and M.I.Skolnik (ed.), Radar Handbook, 2nd Ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1990.

18., EPCTM radio-frequency identity protocols Class-1 Generation-2 UHF RFID protocol for communications at 860 MHz-960 MHz, 1.09 Ed., EPCglobal Inc., 2005.

19. Kim, D., M. A. Ingram, and W. W. Smith, Jr., "Measurements of small-scale fading and path loss for long range RF tags," IEEE Trans Antennas Propagat., Vol. 51, No. 8, 1740-1749, 2003.

20. Yarkoni, N. and N. Blaunstein, "Prediction of propagation characteristics in indoor radio communication environments," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 59, 151-174, 2006.

21. Martinez, D., F. Las-Heras, and R. G. Ayestaran, "Fast methods for evaluating the electric field level in 2D-indoor environments," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 69, 247-255, 2007.

© Copyright 2014 EMW Publishing. All Rights Reserved