Progress In Electromagnetics Research
ISSN: 1070-4698, E-ISSN: 1559-8985
Home | Search | Notification | Authors | Submission | PIERS Home | EM Academy
Home > Vol. 75 > pp. 11-50


By G. Wen

Full Article PDF (583 KB)

It is well known that the performance of a wireless multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) system depends on the propagation channel. The propagation channel models can generally be divided into two different groups, the statistical models based on information theory and the site-specific models based on measurement or ray tracing. In this paper, a general procedure for predicting the MIMO channel model has been presented. Analytical expressions for the channel matrix elements in a general scattering environment have been derived from the statistical theory for a narrow-band electromagnetic field, and have been verified by numerical simulation and experiments. The limitations of information capacity of the MIMO wireless communication system imposed by the antennas have also been discussed, and analytical upper bounds on the information capacity in terms of the antenna parameters for multiple antenna system in free space have been obtained. Once the capacity of a MIMO system is specified, these upper bounds can serve as a criterion for estimating how many antennas are needed or how big the antenna must be to achieve the capacity.

Citation: (See works that cites this article)
G. Wen, "Multi-Antenna Information Theory," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 75, 11-50, 2007.

1. Shannon, C. E., "A mathematical theory of communication," Bell Syst. Tech. J., Vol. July 1948; 27, No. 10, 623-656, 1948.

2. Shannon, C. E., Communication in the presence of noise, Proc. IRE, Vol. 37, No. 1, 10-21, 1949.

3. Foschini, G. J. and M. J. Gans, "On limits of wireless communications in a fading environment when using multiple antennas," Wireless Personal Communications, Vol. 40, No. 6, 311-335, 1998.

4. Telatar, I. E., "Capacity of multi-antenna Gaussian channels," Europ. Trans. Telecomm., Vol. 10, No. 11, 585-595, 1999.

5. Paulraj, A., R. Nabar, and D. Gore, Introduction to Space-Time Wireless Communications, Cambridge University Press, 2003.

6. Tse, D. and P. Viswanath, Fundamentals of Wireless Communications, Cambridge University Press, 2005.

7. Proakis, J. G., Digital Communications, 3rd edition, McGraw- Hill, 1995.

8. Ziemer, R. E. and R. L. Peterson, Introduction to Digital Communication, Prentice Hall, 2001.

9. Waldschmidt, C., S. Schulteis, and W. Wiesbeck, "Complete RF system model for analysis of compact MIMO array," IEEE Trans. Vech. Tech., Vol. 53, No. 3, 579-586, 2004.

10. Wiesbeck, W. and E. Heidrich, "Wide-band multiport antenna characterization by polarmetric RCS measurements," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 46, No. 3, 341-350, 1998.

11. Lau, B. K., S. M. S. Ow, G. Kristensson, and A. F. Molisch, Capacity analysis for compact MIMO systems, IEEE 61st Vech. Tech. Conference, 165-170, 2005.

12. Janaswany, R., "Effect of element mutual coupling on the capacity of fixed linear arrays," IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag. Lett., Vol. 1, 157-160.

13. Gustafsson, M. and S. Nordebo, "On the spectral efficiency of a sphere," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 67, 275-296, 2007.

14. Wallace, J. W. and M. A. Jensen, "Mutual coupling in MIMO wireless systems: A rigorous network theory analysis," IEEE Trans. Wireless Comm., Vol. 3, No. 4, 1317-1325, 2004.

15. Yu, K. and B. Ottersten, "Models for MIMO propagation channels: a review," Wirel. Commun. Mob. Comput., 653-666, 2002.

16. Sarkar T. K., et al., "A discussion about some of the principles/ practices of wireless communication under a Maxwellian framework," IEEE Trans., Vol. AP-54, No. 12, 3727-3745, 2006.

17. Chu, L. J., "Physical limitations of omni-directional antennas," J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 19, 1163-1175, 1948.

18. Harrington, R. F., "Effect of antenna size on gain, bandwidth, and efficiency," Journal of Researchof the National Bureau of Standards-D. Radio Propagation, Vol. 64D, No. 1, 1960.

19. Geyi, W., "Physical Limitations of Antenna," IEEE Trans., Vol. AP-51, 2116-2123, 2003.

20. Simon, S. H., A. L. Moustakas, M. Stoytcheve, and H. Safar, "Communication in a disordered world," Physics Today, No. 9, 2001.

21. Gallager, R. G., Information Theory and Reliable Communication, John Wiley & Sons, 1968.

22. Cover, T. M. and J. A. Thomas, Elements of Information Theory, John Wiley & Sons, 1991.

23. Jones, D. S., Elementary Information Theory, Clarendon Press, 1979.

24. Pinsker, M. S., Information and Information Stability of Random Process, Holden Bay, San Francisco, 1964.

25. Marcuvitz, N., Waveguide Handbook, McGraw-Hill Book Company Inc., 1951.

26. Vendelin, G. D., A. M. Pavio, and U. L. Rohde, Microwave Circuit Design Using Linear and Nonlinear Techniques, 2nd edition, Wiley-Interscience, 2005.

27. Gradshteyn, I. S. and I. M. Ryzhik, Tables of Integrals, Series, and Products, 6th edition, Academic Press, 2000.

28. Horn, R. A. C. R. Johnson, Matrix Analysis, Cambridge University Press, 1985.

29. Harrington, R. F., Time Harmonic Electromagnetic Fields, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1961.

30. Balanis, C. A., Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design, 2nd edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1997.

31. Carter, P. S., Circuit relations in radiating systems and applications to antenna problems, Proc. IRE, Vol. 20, No. 6, 1004-1041, 1932.

32. Schelkunoff, S. A., Antennas: Theory and Practice, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1952.

33. Monteath, G. D., Applications of the Electromagnetic Reciprocity Principle, Pergamon Press, 1973.

34. PopviĀ“c, B. D., Electromagnetic field theorems, IEE Proc. on Science Measurement and Technology, Vol. 128, No. 1, 47-63, 1981.

35. Fante, R. L., "Quality factor of general idea antennas," IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagat., Vol. AP-17, 151-155, 1969.

36. Geyi, W., P. Jarmuszewski, and Y. Qi, "Foster reactance theorems for antennas and radiation Q," IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagat., Vol. AP-48, No. 3, 401-408, 2000.

37. Geyi, W., "New magnetic field integral equation for antenna system," Progress In Electromagnetic Research, Vol. 63, 153-170, 2006.

38. Chen, Y. B., Y. C. Jiao, F. S. Zhang, and H. W. Gao, "A novel small CPW-fed T-shaped antenna for MIMO system applications," J. of Electromagn. Waves and Appl., Vol. 20, No. 14, 2027-2036, 2006.

39. Abouda, A. A., H. M. El-Sallabi, and S. G. Häggman, "Effect of antenna array geometry and ULA azimuthal orientation on MIMO channel properties in urban city street grid," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 64, 257-278, 2006.

40. Abouda, A. A., and S. G. Häggman, "Effect of mutual coupling on capacity of MIMO wireless channels in high SNR scenario," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 65, 27-40, 2006.

41. Li, H.-J. and C.-H. Yu, "MIMO channel capacity for various polarization combinations," J. of Electromagn. Waves and Appl., Vol. 18, No. 3, 301-320, 2004.

© Copyright 2014 EMW Publishing. All Rights Reserved