Progress In Electromagnetics Research
ISSN: 1070-4698, E-ISSN: 1559-8985
Home | Search | Notification | Authors | Submission | PIERS Home | EM Academy
Home > Vol. 77 > pp. 121-136


By D. Singh and A. Kathpalia

Full Article PDF (332 KB)

One of the most important functions of radar remote sensing is to retrieve the soil moisture and surface parameters where surface parameters generally includes soil surface roughness and texture of soil (i.e.,% of coarse sand,silt and clay). Variation of soil moisture and surface parameters changes the soil permittivity, and affects the observation of the radar wave scattering (σ0). How to invert the moisture and surface parameters from radar data has been one of the most interesting problems to be resolved. Still,v ery few reported work is available to retrieve the soil textures with radar data. Therefore,in present paper an attempt has been made to retrieve the soil textures with soil moisture and surface roughness from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data. In this case number of variables are more and it is difficult to invert and retrieve the various parameters. To overcome this difficulty,an approach based on Genetic Algorithm (GA) with inclusion of empirical modeling has been proposed to retrieve the soil moisture,roughness and soil texture with ERS-2 (European Remote Sensing) SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) data of Haridwar region of India. The retrieved surface parameters and moisture content with proposed approach show quite good agreement with observed values of soil moisture and surface parameters. This study infers that modeling with GA has great potential to retrieve several variables simultaneously with good results.

Citation: (See works that cites this article)
D. Singh and A. Kathpalia, "An Efficient Modeling with GA Approach to Retrieve Soil Texture, Moisture and Roughness from ERS-2 SAR Data," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 77, 121-136, 2007.

1. Ulaby, F. T., R. K. Moore, and A. K. Fung, Microwave Remote Sensing—Active and Passive, Vol. 1 and 3, Addison Wesley, Vol. 1 and 3, 1982.

2. Formaggio, A. R., M. G. Gameiro, and J. C. N. Epiphanio, Soil erosion modeling using USLE: two approaches for evaluating the parameters L'' and S'', Symposium of Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 2, 856-858, 1998.

3. Oh, Y. and C. V. Kay, "Conditions for precise measurement of soil surface roughness," IEEE Trans. on Geo. Sci. and Rem. Sens., Vol. 36, No. 2, 691-695, 1998.

4. Wegmuller, U., C. Matzler, R. Huppi, and E. Schanda, "Activeandpassviemicrowavesignaturecatalogenbaresoil(2-12GHz)," IEEE Trans. on Geosic. and Rem. Sens., Vol. 13, No. 3, 698-702, 1994.

5. Dubois, P . J., V. Zyl, and T. Engman, "Measuring soil moisture with imaging radar," IEEE Trans. on Geo. and Rem. Sens., Vol. 33, No. 4, 915-926, 1995.

6. Bolten, J. D., V. Lakshmi, and E. G. Njoku, "Soil moisture retrieval using the passive/active l-and s-band radar/radiometer," IEEE Trans. Geosc. Rem. Sens., Vol. 41, No. 12, 2792-280, 2003.

7. Fung, A. K., Microwave Scattering and Emission Models and their Applications, 573, Artec h House, 1994.

8. Singh, D., Y. Yamaguchi, H. Yamada, and K. P. Singh, "Resp onse of microwave on bare soil moisture and surface roughness by Xband scatterometer," IEICE Trans. Commun. E, Vol. 83-B, No. 9, 2038-2043, 2000.

9. Singh, D., K. P. Singh, I. Herlin, and S. K. Sharma, "Ground based Scatterometer measurements of periodic surface roughness and correlation length for remote sensing," Advances in Space Research, Vol. 32, No. 11, 2281-2286, 2003.

10. Singh, D., "A simplistic incidence angle approach to retrieve the soil moisture and surface roughness at X-band," IEEE Trans. on Geo. and Rems., Vol. 43, No. 11, 2606-2611, 2005.

11. Singh, D., Polarization discrimination ratio approach to retrieve bare soil moisture at X-band, Proc. of IEEE, 408-411, 2005.

12. Fung, A. K., U. Li, and K. S. Chen, "Bac kscattering from a randomly rough dielectric surface," IEEE Trans. on Geo. and Rem. Sens., Vol. 30, 356-369, 1992.

13. Chanzy, B., B. Molineaux, and M. Zribi, Influence of surface roughness frequency components on radar backscattering: Consequences on roughness sampling, Proc. of IEEE, 1414-1416, 2003.

14. Oh, Y., K. Sarabandi, and F. T. Ulaby, "An empirical model an inversion technique for radar scattering from bare soil surfaces," IEEE Trans. on Geo. and Rem. Sens., Vol. 30, No. 2, 370-381, 1992.

15. Paloscia, S., G. Macelloni, E. Santi, and T. Koike, "A multifrequency algorithm for the retrieval of soil moisture on a large scale using microwave data from SMMR and SSM/I satellites," IEEE Trans. on Geo. and Rem. Sens., Vol. 39, No. 8, 1655-1661, 2001.

16. Oho, Y., "Quan titative retrieval of soil moisture content and surface roughness from multipolarized radar observations of bare soil surfaces," IEEE Trans. on Geo. and Rem. Sens., Vol. 42, No. 3, 596-601, 2004.

17. Satalino, G., F. Mattia, G. Pasquariello, and L. Dente, Soil moisture retrieval from ASAR measurements over natural surfaces with a large roughness variability, Proc. of IEEE, 396-399, 2005.

18. Zhao, K. G., J. C. Shi, L. X. Zhang, L. M. Jiang, Z. J. Zhang, J. Qin, Y. J. Yao, and J. C. Hu, Retriev al of bare soil surface parameters from simulated data using neural networks combined with IEM, Proc. of IEEE, 3881-3883, 2003.

19. Jin, Y. Q. and Y. Wang, A novel genetic algorithm to retrieve surface roughness and wetness from angular back-scattering, Proc. IGARSS IEEE, 2000.

20. Huang, X. and Y. Q. Jin, "A simple method to estimate the soil wetness and surface roughness by using active/passive microwave data," Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 53, 212-214, 1995.

21. Haupt, R. L., "An introduction to genetic algorithms for electromagnetic," Antenna and Propagation Magazine, Vol. 37, No. 2, 7-15, 1995.

22. Attema, E. and F. T. Ulaby, "V egetation model as water cloud," Radio Sci., Vol. 13, 357-364, 1978.

23. Susan, M., A. Vidal, D. Troufleau, Y. Ionue, and T. A. Mitchell, "Ku-and C-band SAR for discriminating agricultural crop and soil conditions," IEEE Trans Geosci Remote Sensing, Vol. 36, No. 1, 265-272, 1998.

24. Hallikainen, M. T., F. T., Ulab y, M. C. Dobson, M. A. El- Rayes, and L.-K.Wu, "Micro wave dielectric behavior of wet soil— part 1; Empirical models and experimental observations," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 23, No. 1, 25-34, 1985.

25. Engman, E. T. and N. Chauhan, "Status of microwave soil moisture measurements with remote sensing," Rem. Sens. of Environ., Vol. 51, 189-198, 1995.

26. Ho, M., "Scattering of electromagnetic waves from vibrating perfect surface: simulation using relativistic boundary conditions," J. of Electromagn. Waves and Appl., Vol. 20, No. 4, 425-433, 2006.

27. Storvold, R., E. Malnes, Y. Larsen, and K. A. Hogda, "SAR remote sensing of snow parameter in NORWEGIAN areas — current status and future perspective," J. of Electromagn. Waves and Appl., Vol. 20, No. 13, 1751-1759, 2006.

28. Wang, C. J., B. Y. Wen, , Z. G. Ma, W. D. Yan, and X. J. Huang, "Measurement of river surface currents with UHF FMCW Radar systems," J. of Electromagn. Waves and Appl., Vol. 21, No. 3, 375-386, 2007.

29. Arslan, A. N., J. Pulliainen, and M. Hallikainen, "Observ ations of L-and C-band backscatter and a semi-empirical model approach from forest-snow-ground system," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 56, 263-281, 2006.

30. Cocheril, Y. and R. Vauzelle, "A new ray-tracing based wave propagation model including rough surfaces scattering," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 75, 357-381, 2007.

31. Lim, K.-S., C.-P . Tan, J.-Y. Koay, V.-C. Koo, H.-T. Ewe, Y.- C. Lo, and A. Ali, Multitemp oral C-band radar measurement on rice fields, Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium, 26-30, 2007.

32. Tian, Y. B., "Ultra conveniently finding multiple solutions of complex transcendental equations based on genetic algorithm," J. of Electromagn. Waves and Appl., Vol. 20, No. 4, 475-488, 2006.

33. Fabbro, V., C. Bourlier, and P. F. Combes, "Forward propagation modeling above Gaussian rough surfaces by the parabolic wave equation: Introduction of the shadowing effect," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 58, 243-269, 2006.

34. Chen, K. S., A. K. Fung, J. C. Shi, and H. W. Lee, "Interaction of backscattering mechanismds from non Gaussian correlated random rough surfaces," J. of Electromagn. Waves and Appl., Vol. 20, No. 1, 105-118, 2006.

35. Li, Z.-X., "Modelling the passive microwave remote sensing of wet snow," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 62, 143-164, 2006.

© Copyright 2014 EMW Publishing. All Rights Reserved