Progress In Electromagnetics Research
ISSN: 1070-4698, E-ISSN: 1559-8985
Home | Search | Notification | Authors | Submission | PIERS Home | EM Academy
Home > Vol. 82 > pp. 333-350


By G. K. Theofilogiannakos, T. V. Yioultsis, and T. D. Xenos

Full Article PDF (154 KB)

A new full-wave Parabolic --- Integral Equation Method (PE-IEM) for the simulation of wave propagation in realistic, highly complex indoor communication environments is proposed, together with an extensive validation via measurements. The method is based on a wide-angle parabolic equation, further enhanced by an integral equation correction and is capable of providing good approximations of the electromagnetic fields and the received power, incorp orating all fundamental propagation mechanisms in a single simulation. For a rigorous validation, it has been applied in a complex twelve-room office space and compared with measurements at the two different frequencies of 1 GHz and 2.5 GHz. The accuracy of the approximation is within reasonably expected margins, while the method retains all the advantages of full wave methods and it also has moderate requirements of computational resources.

G. K. Theofilogiannakos, T. V. Yioultsis, and T. D. Xenos, "Experimental Validation of a Hybrid Wide-Angle Parabolic Equation - Integral Equation Technique for Modeling Wave Propagation in Indoor Wireless Communications," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 82, 333-350, 2008.

1. Bertoni, H. L., Radio Propagation for Modern Wireless Systems, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 2000.

2. Honcharenko, W., H. L. Bertoni, and J. Dailing, "Mechanism governing propagation on single floors in modern office buildings," IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 41, No. 4, 496-504, 1992.

3. Chen, S. H. and S. K. Jeng, "An SBR/image approach for radio wave propagation in indoor environments with metallic furniture," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation, Vol. 45, No. 1, 98-106, 1997.

4. Ghobadi, G., P. R. Shepherd, and S. R. Pennock, "2D ray-tracing model for indoor radio propagation at millimeter frequencies and the study of diversity techniques," IEE Proc. - Microw. Antennas Propagation, Vol. 145, No. 4, 349-353, 1998.

5. Yang, C.-F., B.-C. Wu, and C.-J. Ko, "A ray-tracing method for modeling indoor wave propagation and penetration," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation, Vol. 46, No. 6, 907-919, 1998.

6. Ji, Z., B.-H. Li, H.-X. Wang, H.-Y. Chen, and Y.-G. Zhou, "An improved ray-tracing propagation model for predicting path loss on single floors," Microw. and Optical Tech. Letters, Vol. 22, No. 1, 39-41, 1999.

7. Agelet, F. A., et al., "Efficient ray-tracing acceleration techniques for radio propagation modeling," IEEE Trans. on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 49, No. 6, 2089-2104, 2000.

8. Wang, Y., S. Safavi-Naeini, and S. K. Chaudhuri, "A hybrid technique based on combining ray tracing and FDTD methods for site-specific modeling of indoor radio wave propagation," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation, Vol. 48, No. 5, 743-754, 2000.

9. Athanasiadou, G. E. and A. R. Nix, "A novel 3-D indoor ray-tracing propagation model: The path generator and evaluation of narrow-band and wide-band predictions," IEEE Trans. Vehicular. Technology, Vol. 49, No. 4, 1152-1168, 2000.

10. Remley, K. A., H. R. Anderson, and A. Weisshaar, "Improving the accuracy of ray-tracing techniques for indoor propagation modeling," IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technology, Vol. 49, No. 6, 2350-2358, 2000.

11. De Adana, F. S., O. G. Blanco, I. G. Diego, J. P. Arriaga, and M. F. Catedra, "Propagation model based on ray tracing for the design of personal communication systems in indoor environments," IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technology, Vol. 49, No. 6, 2105-2112, 2000.

12. Attiya, A. M. and E. El-Diwany, "A time domain incremental theory of diffraction: scattering of electromagnetic pulsed plane waves," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 18, No. 2, 205-207, 2004.

13. Teh, C. H., F. Kung, and H. T. Chuah, "A path-corrected wall model for ray-tracing propagation modeling," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 20, No. 2, 207-214, 2006.

14. Jin, K.-S., "Fast ray tracing sing a space-division algorithm for RCS prediction," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 20, No. 1, 119-126, 2006.

15. Wang, S., H. B. Lim, and E. P. Li, "An efficient ray-tracing method for analysis and design of electromagnetic shielded room systems," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 19, No. 15, 2059-2071, 2005.

16. Chen, C. H., C.-L. Liu, C.-C. Chiu, and T.-M. Hu, "Ultra-wide band channel calculation by SBR/image techniques for indoor communication," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 20, No. 1, 41-51, 2006.

17. Teh, C. H. and H. T. Chuah, "An improved image-based propagation model for indoor and outdoor communication channels," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 17, No. 1, 31-50, 2003.

18. Zaporozhets, A. A. and M. F. Levy, "Modeling of radiowave propagation in urban environment with parabolic equation method," Electron. Lett., Vol. 32, No. 17, 1615-1616, 1996.

19. Donohue, D. J. and J. R. Kuttler, "Propagation modeling over terrain using the parabolic wave equation," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation, Vol. 48, 260-277, 2000.

20. Zelley, C. A. and C. C. Constantinou, "A three-dimensional parabolic equation applied to VHF/UHF propagation over irregular terrain," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation, Vol. 47, 1586-1596, 1999.

21. Sevgi, L., F. Akleman, and L. B. Felsen, "Groundwave propagation modeling: Problem-matched analytic formulations and direct numerical techniques," IEEE Antennas Propagation Mag., Vol. 44, No. 1, 55-75, 2002.

22. Janaswamy, R., "Path loss predictions in the presence of buildings on flat terrain: A 3-D vector parabolic equation approach," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation, Vol. 51, No. 8, 1716-1728, 2003.

23. Awadallah, R. S., J. Z. Gehman, J. R. Kuttler, and M. H. Newkirk, "Effects of lateral terrain variations on tropospheric radar propagation," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation, Vol. 53, No. 1, 420-434, 2005.

24. Oraizi, H. and N. Noori, "Least square solution of the 3-D vector parabolic equation," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 20, No. 9, 1175-1187, 2006.

25. Noori, N. and H. Oraizi, "Evaluation of MIMO channel capacity in indoor environments using vector parabolic equation method," Progress In Electromagnetics ResearchB, Vol. 4, 13-25, 2008.

26. Graglia, R. D., "The parabolic equation method for the high-frequency scattering from a convex perfectly conducting wedge with curved faces," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 21, No. 5, 585-598, 2007.

27. Theofilogiannakos, G. K., T. V. Yioultsis, and T. D. Xenos, "An efficient hybrid parabolic equation --- Integral equation method for the analysis of wave propagation in highly complex indoor communication environments," Wireless Personal Communications, Springer, Vol. 43, No. 2, 495-510, 2007.

28. Hadley, G. R., "Wide-angle beam propagation using Pade approximant operators," Optics Letters, Vol. 17, No. 20, 1426-1428, 1992.

29. Hadley, G. R., "Multistep method for wide-angle beam propagation," Optics Letters, Vol. 17, No. 24, 1743-1745, 1992.

30. Sacks, Z. S., D. M. Kingsland, R. Lee, and J.-F. Lee, "A perfectly matched anisotropic absorber for use as an absorbing boundary condition," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation, Vol. 43, No. 12, 1460-1463, 1995.

31. Jin, J., The Finite Element Method in Electromagnetics, Wiley, New York, 1993, 2002.

32. Collin, R. E., Field Theory of Guided Waves, IEEE Press, New York, 1990.

33. Hu, C. F., J. D. Xu, N. J. Li, and L. X. Zhang, "Indoor accurate RCS measurements techniques on UHF band," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 81, 279-289, 2008.

34. Amirhosseini, M. K., "Three types of walls for shielding enclosures," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 19, No. 6, 827-838, 2005.

35. Safaai-Jazi, A., S. M. Riad, A. Muqaibel, and A. Bayram, "Ultra-wideband propagation measurements and channel modeling; through-the-wall propagation and material characterization," DARPA NETEX Program, 2002.

© Copyright 2014 EMW Publishing. All Rights Reserved