Progress In Electromagnetics Research
ISSN: 1070-4698, E-ISSN: 1559-8985
Home | Search | Notification | Authors | Submission | PIERS Home | EM Academy
Home > Vol. 90 > pp. 235-254


By W. Zheng, Z. Zhao, Z.-P. Nie, and Q. H. Liu

Full Article PDF (552 KB)

Practical interests arising from behind-the-wall target detection, surveillance and reconnaissance et al. claim for high capability of imaging in complicated environments. Time Reversal Mirror (TRM) technique, making use of the principle of reciprocity, emerges as a promising way to deal with such complex problem. In this paper, we investigate TRM in the ultra-wideband (UWB) through wall radar imaging (TWRI) through numerical simulation. The probing region is a square room, with walls of rough surface and random media parameters. TRM is used to image the target settled in the room. We evaluate the degradation of the images when the aperture of the array is decreased or the received signals are contaminated by noises. The back projection (BP) algorithm is employed here as a comparison for imaging quality. For the case in which the random walls are changed between the forward and inverse phase of time reversal, we check the imaging stability and applied an averaged Green's function to improve the imaging quality. Finally, some interesting conclusions are drawn.

W. Zheng, Z. Zhao, Z.-P. Nie, and Q. H. Liu, "Evaluation of TRM in the complex through wall environment," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 90, 235-254, 2009.

1. Zhuge, X., T. G. Savalyev, and A. G. Yarovoy, "Assessment of electromagnetic requirements for UWB through-wall radar," IEEE, Proc. ICEAA, 923-926, 2007.

2. Yang, Y. and A. E. Fathy, "See-through-wall imaging using ultra wideband short-pulse radar system," IEEE, Antennas and Propag. Society Inter. Symposium, Vol. 38, 334-337, 2005.

3. Yang, Y., Y., Y. Wang, and A. E. Fathy, "Design of compact Vivaldi antenna arrays for UWB see through wall applications," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, PIER 82, 401-418, 2008.

4. Hunt, A. R., "A wideband imaging radar for through-the-wall surveillance," Proc. SPIE, Vol. 5403, 590-596, 2004.

5. Beeri, A. and R. Daisy, "High-resolution through wall imaging," Proc. SPIE, Vol. 6201, 62010J, 2006.

6. Hunt, A. R., "Image formation through walls using a distributed radar sensor array," Applied Imagery Pattern Recognition Workshop, 232-237, 2003.

7. Fan, Z. G., L. X. Ran, and J. A. Kong, "Source pulse optimizations for UWB radio systems," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 20, 1535-1550, 2006.

8. Zetik, R., et al., "Detection and localization of persons behind obstacles using Msequence through-the-wall radar," Proc. SPIE, Vol. 6201, 62010I, 2006.

9. Song, L. P., C. Yu, and Q. H. Liu, "Through-wall imaging (TWI) by radar: 2-D tomographic results and analyses," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 43, 2793-2798, 2005.

10. Cui, G., L. Kong, and J. Yang, "A back-projection algorithm to stepped-frequency synthetic aperture through-the-wall radar imaging," Process of 1st Asian and Pacific Conference on Synthetic Aperture Radar, 123-126, 2007.

11. Abubakar, A., P. M. van den Berg, and S. Y. Semenov, "Two and three dimensional algorithms for microwave imaging and inverse scattering," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, PIER 37, 57-79, 2002.

12. Song, L. P., et al., "Reconstruction of three dimensional objects in layered media: Numerical experiments," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 53, 1556-1561, 2005.

13. Ahmad, F., M. G. Amin, and G. Mandapati, "Autofocusing of through-the-wall radar imagery under unknown wall characteristics," IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, Vol. 16, 1785-1795, 2007.

14. Fink, M., "Time reversal of ultrasonic fields --- Part I: Basic principles," IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, Vol. 39, 555-566, 1992.

15. Fink, M., "Time reversed acoustics," Physics Today, Vol. 50, 34-40, 1997.

16. Derode, A., P. Roux, and M. Fink, "Robust acoustic time reversal with high-order multiple scattering," Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol. 75, 4206-4209, 1995.

17. Kim, S., et al., "Spatial resolution of time-reversal arrays in shallow water," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 110, 820-829, 2001.

18. Borcea, L., et al., "Imaging and time reversal in random media," Inverse Problems, Vol. 18, 1247-1279, 2002.

19. Tsogka, C. and G. Papanicolaou, "Time reversal through a solid-liquid interface and super-resolution," Inverse Problems, Vol. 18, 1639-1657, 2002.

20. Papanicolaou, G., L. Ryzhik, and K. Solna, "The parabolic wave approximation and time reversal," Matematica Contemporanea, Vol. 23, 139-160, 2002.

21. Lerosey, G., et al., "Time reversal of electromagnetic waves," Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol. 92, 1939041-3, 2004.

22. Liu, D., et al., "Electromagnetic time-reversal imaging of a target in a cluttered environment," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 53, 3058-3066, 2005.

23. Tortel, H., G. Micolau, and M. Saillard, "Decomposition of the time reversal operator for electromagnetic scattering," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 13, 687-719, 1999.

24. Liu, D., J. Krolik, and L. Carin, "Electromagnetic target detection in uncertain media: Time-reversal and minimum-variance algorithms," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 45, 934-944, 2007.

25. Liu, D., et al., "Electromagnetic time-reversal source localization in changing media: Experiment and analysis," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 55, 344-354, 2007.

26. Chen, X., "Time-reversal operator for a small sphere in electromagnetic fields," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 21, 1219-1230, 2007.

27. Rao, T. and X. Chen, "Analysis of the time-reversal operator for a single cylinder under two-dimensional settings," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 20, 2153-2165, 2006.

28. Chambers, D. H. and J. G. Berryman, "Analysis of the time-reversal operator for a small spherical scatterer in an electromagnetic field," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 52, 1729-1738, 2004.

29. Zheng, W., Z. Zhao, and Z. Nie, "Application of TRM in the UWB through wall radar," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, PIER 87, 279-296, 2008.

30. Born, M. and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, Academic Press, New York, 1970.

31. Blomgren, P., G. Papanicolaou, and H. Zhao, "Super-resolution in time-reversal acoustics," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 111, 230-248, 2002.

32. Kuperman, W. A., et al., "Phase conjugation in the ocean: Experimental demonstration of an acoustic time reversal mirror," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 103, 25-40, 1998.

33. Bal, G. and L. Ryzhik, "Time reversal and refocusing in random media," SIAM J. on Appl. Math., Vol. 63, 1475-1498, 2003.

34. Clouet, J. F. and J. P. Fouque, "A time-reversal method for an acoustical pulse propagating in randomly layered media," Wave Motion., Vol. 25, 361-368, 1997.

35. Fouque, J. P. and K. Sqlna, "Time reversal aperture enhance-ment ," SIAM Mult. Mod. Simul., Vol. 1, 239-259, 2003.

36. Bal, G., G. Papanicolaou, and L. Ryzhik, "Self-averaging in time reversal for the parabolic wave equation," Stochastics and Dynamics, Vol. 2, 507-531, 2002.

37. Papanicolaou, G., L. Ryzhik, and K. Solna, "Statistical stability in time reversal," SIAM J. on Appl. Math., Vol. 64, 1133-1155, 2004.

38. Chen, G. P., et al., "The prototype of microwave-induced thermo-acoustic tomography imaging by time reversal mirror," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 22, 1565-1574, 2008.

39. Chen, G. P., Z. Q. Zhao, and Q. H. Liu, "Computational study of time reversal mirror technique for microwave-induced thermo-acoustic tomography," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 22, 2191-2204, 2008.

40. Xiao, S. Q., et al., "A numerical study on time-reversal electromagnetic wave for indoor ultra-wideband signal transmission," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, 329-342, PIER 77, 2007.

41. Liu, X., et al., "Performance of impulse radio UWB communications based on time reversal technique," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, 401-413, 2008.

42. Zhao, Z., et al., "Analysis of scattering from very large three-dimensional rough surface using MLFMM and ray-based analyses," IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, Vol. 47, 20-30, 2005.

43. Steinberg, B., Microwave Imaging with Large Antenna Arrays, Wiley, New York, 1983.

44. Bal, G., R. Verastegui, and , "Time reversal in changing environment," Multiscale Model. Simul., Vol. 2, 639-661, 2004.

© Copyright 2014 EMW Publishing. All Rights Reserved