Progress In Electromagnetics Research
ISSN: 1070-4698, E-ISSN: 1559-8985
Home | Search | Notification | Authors | Submission | PIERS Home | EM Academy
Home > Vol. 95 > pp. 167-178


By Y. Luo, J. Zhang, H. Chen, B.-I. Wu, and L.-X. Ran

Full Article PDF (320 KB)

Ray-tracing exercise and full-wave analysis were performed to validate the performance of a type of cloak composed of isotropic metamaterials. It is shown that objects inside the 'folded region' of this cloak appear invisible to the incoming light from a ray tracing exercise, but exhibit magnified and shifted scattering under a plane wave illumination from a full wave analysis. Gaussian beams are introduced to resolve this interesting paradox resulted from these two methods. We show that at the time-harmonic state, small energy can be diffracted into the folded region and contribute to the resonant state even when the Gaussian beam is steered away from the cloak with an object inside. A scattering pattern identical to that scattered from the image of the object will be formed, which agrees well with the phenomenon in the plane wave incidence case.

Y. Luo, J. Zhang, H. Chen, B.-I. Wu, and L.-X. Ran, "Wave and Ray Analysis of a Type of Cloak Exhibiting Magnified and Shifted Scattering Effect," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 95, 167-178, 2009.

1. Alù, A. and N. Engheta, "Achieving transparency with plasmonic and metamaterial coatings," Phys. Rev. E, Vol. 72, 016623, 2005.

2. Alù, A. and N. Engheta, "Multifrequency optical invisibility cloak with layered plasmonic shells," Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol. 100, 113901, 2008.

3. Milton, G. W. and N. A. P. Nicorovici, "On the cloaking effects associated with anomalous localized resonance," Proc. R. Soc. A, Vol. 462, 3027-3059, 2006.

4. Pendry, J. B., D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Controlling electromagnetic fields," Science, Vol. 312, 1780-1782, 2006.

5. Leonhardt, U., "Optical conformal mapping," Science, Vol. 312, 1777-1780, 2006.

6. Greenleaf, A., M. Lassas, and G. Uhlmann, "Anisotropic conductivities that cannot be detected by EIT," Physiol. Meas., Vol. 24, 413-419, 2003.

7. Schurig, D., J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Scienc, Vol. 314, 977-980, 2006.

8. Cummer, S. A., B.-I. Popa, D. Schurig, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, "Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structures," Phys. Rev. E, Vol. 74, 036621, 2006.

9. Greenleaf, A., Y. Kurylev, M. Lassas, and G. Uhlmann, "Improvement of cylindrical cloaking with the SHS lining," Opt. Express, Vol. 15, 12717-12734, 2007.

10. Chen, H., B.-I. Wu, B. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, "Electromagnetic wave interactions with metamaterial cloak," Phys. Rev. Letts., Vol. 99, 063903, 2007.

11. Cai, W., U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Optical cloaking with metamaterials," Nature Photon., Vol. 1, 224-227, 2007.

12. Weder, R., "A rigorous analysis of high-order electromagnetic invisibility cloaks," J. Phys. A: Math. Theor., Vol. 41, 065207, 2008.

13. Zhang, J., J. Huangfu, Y. Luo, H. Chen, J. A. Kong, and B.-I. Wu, "Cloak for multilayered and gradually changing media," Phys. Rev. B, Vol. 77, 035116, 2008.

14. Luo, Y., H. Chen, J. Zhang, L. Ran, and J. A. Kong, "Design and analytical full-wave validation of the invisibility cloaks, concentrators, and field rotators created with a general class of transformations," Phys. Rev. B, Vol. 77, 125127, 2008.

15. Zhang, J. J., Y. Luo, S. Xi, H. Chen, L.-X.Ran, B.-I. Wu, and J. A. Kong, "Directive emission obtained by coordinate transformation," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 81, 437-446, 2008.

16. Zhang, J. J., Y. Luo, H. Chen, and B.-I. Wu, "Sensitivity of transformation cloak in engineering," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 84, 93-104, 2008.

17. Rahm, M, S. A. Cummer, D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, "Optical design of reflectionless complex media by finite embedded coordinate transformations," Phys. Rev. Letts., Vol. 100, 063903, 2008.

18. Pendry, J. B. and D. R. Smith, "Reversing light with negative refraction," Phys. Today, Vol. 57, 37-43, 2004.

19. Rockstuhl, C., F. Lederer, C. Etrich, T. Pertsch, and T. Scharf, "Design of an artificial three-dimensional composite metamaterial with magnetic resonances in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum," Phys. Rev. Letts., Vol. 99, 017401, 2007.

20. Schuller, J. A., R. Zia, T. Taubner, and M. L. Brongersma, "Dielectric metamaterials based on electric and magnetic resonances of silicon carbide particles," Phys. Rev. Letts., Vol. 99, 107401, 2007.

21. Balanis, C. A., Advanced Engineering Electromagnetics, Wiley, New York, 1989.

22. Choi, S. H., D. W. Seo, and N. H. Myung, "Scattering analysis of open-ended cavity with inner object," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 21, No. 12, 1689-1702, 2007.

23. Li, Y. L., J. Y. Huang, and M. J. Wang, "Scattering cross section for airborne and its application," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 21, No. 15, 2341-2349, 2007.

24. Du, P., B. Z. Wang, H. Li, and G. Zheng, "Scattering analysis of large-scale periodic structures using the sub-entire domain basis function method and characteristic function method," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 21, No. 14, 2085-2094, 2007.

25. Abd-El-Raouf, H. and R. Mittra, "Scattering analysis of dielectric coated cones," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 21, No. 13, 1857-1871, 2007.

26. Xi, S., H. Chen, B. I. Wu, B. Zhang, J. Huangfu, D. Wang, and J. A. Kong, "Effects of different transformations on the performance of cylindrical cloaks," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 22, No. 11-12, 1489-1497, 2008.

27. Pendry, J. B., "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Letts., Vol. 85, 3966-3969, 2000.

28. Pendry, J. B., "Negative refraction," Contemp. Phys., Vol. 45, 191-202, 2004.

29. Han, Y. and Z. Wu, "Scattering of a spheroidal particle illuminated by a gaussian beam," Appl. Opt., Vol. 27, 2501-2509, 1988.

30. Yang, T., H. Chen, X. Luo, and H. Ma, "Superscatterer: Enhancement of scattering with complementary media," Opt. Express, Vol. 16, 18545-18550, 2008.

31. Yan, M., W. Yan, and M. Qiu, "Cylindrical superlens by a coordinate transformation," Phys. Rev. B, Vol. 78, 125113, 2008.

32. Leonhardt, U. and T. G. Philbin, "General relativity in electrical engineering," New J. Phys., Vol. 8, 247, 2006.

© Copyright 2014 EMW Publishing. All Rights Reserved