An open-ended waveguide probe has been adapted for complex permittivity determination and hence mechanical property inspection of cement-based materials. The probe uses amplitude-only reflection measurements at different frequencies for this goal, which is suitable for industrial based applications when cost and ease of use are important considerations. We have derived expressions by taking into account of the wavematerial interaction. The reference plane for measurements is set inside the waveguide to measure solely the reflected signal of the dominant mode. It is shown that the measurement results are in good agreement with the theory.
2. He, X., Z. X. Tang, B. Zhang, and Y. Wu, "A new deembedding method in permittivity measurement of ferroelectric thin film material," Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 3, 1-8, 2008.
3. Wu, Y. Q., Z. X. Tang, Y. H. Xu, X. He, and B. Zhang, "Permittivity measurement of ferroelectric thin film based on CPW transmission line," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 22, No. 4, 555-562, 2008.
4. Zainud-Deen, S. H., M. E. S. Badr, E. El-Deen, and K. H. Awadalla, "Microstrip antenna with corrugated ground plane structure as a sensor for landmines detection," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 2, 259-278, 2008.
5. Zainud-Deen, S. H., W. M. Hassen, E. El deen Ali, and K. H. Awadalla, "Breast cancer detection using a hybrid finite difference frequency domain and particle swarm optimization techniques," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 3, 35-46, 2008.
6. Yan, L. P., K. M. Huang, and C. J. Liu, "A noninvasive method for determining dielectric properties of layered tissues on human back," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 21, No. 13, 1829-1843, 2007.
7. Zainud-Deen, S. H., M. E. S. Badr, E. El-Deen, K. H. Awadalla, and H. A. Sharshar, "Microstrip antenna with defected ground plane structure as a sensor for landmines detection," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 4, 27-39, 2008.
8. Capineri, L., D. J. Daniels, P. Falorni, O. L. Lopera, and C. G. Windsor, "Estimation of relative permittivity of shallow soils by using the ground penetrating radar response from different buried targets," Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 2, 63-71, 2008.
9. Zhang, H., S. Y. Tan, and H. S. Tan, "An improved method for microwave nondestructive dielectric measurement of layered media," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 10, 145-161, 2008.
10. Rubinger, C. P. L. and L. C. Costa, "Building a resonant cavity for the measurement of microwave dielectric permittivity of high loss materials," Microwave Opt. Tech. Lett., Vol. 49, 1687-1690, 2007.
11. Baker-Jarvis, J., E. J. Vanzura, and W. A. Kissick, "Improved technique for determining complex permittivity with the transmission/reflection method," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., Vol. 38, 1096-1103, 1990.
12. Chung, B.-K., "Dielectric constant measurement for thin material at microwave frequencies," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, PIER 75, 239-252, 2007.
13. Hasar, U. C., "Thickness-independent complex permittivity determination of partially ¯lled thin dielectric materials into rectangular waveguides," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, PIER 93, 189-203, 2009.
14. Hasar, U. C., "A new microwave method based on transmission scattering parameter measurements for simultaneous broadband and stable permittivity and permeability determination," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, PIER 93, 161-176, 2009.
15. Hasar, U. C., "A microwave method for noniterative constitutive parameters determination of thin low-loss or lossy materials," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., Vol. 57, 1595-1601, Jun. 2009.
16. Hasar, U. C. and O. Simsek, "A calibration-independent microwave method for position-insensitive and nonsingular dielectric measurements of solid materials," Journal of Phys. D: Appl. Phys., Vol. 42, 075403-075412, Mar. 2009.
17. Baker-Jarvis, J., M. D. Janezic, P. D. Domich, and R. G. Geyer, "Analysis of an open-ended coaxial probe with lift-off for nondestructive testing," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., Vol. 43, 711-718, 1994.
18. Stuchly, S. S. and M. A. Stuchly, "Coaxial line reflection method for measuring dielectric properties at radio and microwave frequencies, a review," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., Vol. 29, 1640-1648, 1999.
19. Teodoridis, V., T. Sphicopoulos, and F. E. Gardiol, "The reflection from an open-ended rectangular waveguide terminated by a layered dielectric medium," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., Vol. 33, 359-366, 1985.
20. Park, M. Y. and H. J. Eom, "Reflection coefficient of a flanged rectangular waveguide radiating into a dielectric slab," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett., Vol. 35, 401-404, 2002.
21. Bois, K. J., A. D. Benally, and R. Zoughi, "Multimode solution for the reflection properties of an open-ended rectangular waveguide radiating into a dielectric half-space: The forward and inverse problems," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., Vol. 48, 1131-1140, 1999.
22. Saleh, W. and N. Qaddoumi, "Potential of near-field microwave imaging in breast cancer detection utilizing tapered rectangular waveguide probes," Computer and Electrical Engineering, Vol. 35, 587-593, 2009.
23. Chang, C.-W., K.-M. Chen, and J. Qian, "Nondestructive determination of electromagnetic parameters of dielectric materials at X-band frequencies using a waveguide probe system," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., Vol. 46, 1084-1092, 1997.
24. Trabelsi, S. and S. O. Nelson, "Nondestructive sensing of physical properties of granular materials by microwave permittivity measurement," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., Vol. 55, 953-963, 2006.
25. Hasar, U. C., "Non-destructive testing of hardened cement specimens at microwave frequencies using a simple free-space method," NDT & E Int., Vol. 42, 550-557, 2009.
26. Hasar, U. C., "A microcontroller-based microwave free-space measurement system for permittivity determination of lossy liquid materials," Rev. Sci. Instrum., Vol. 80, 056103-1-056103-3, 2009.
27. Zoughi, R., Microwave Non-destructive Testing and Evaluation, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2000.
28. Aydin, A. C., A. Arslan, and R. Gul, "Mesoscale simulation of cement based materials' time-dependent behavior," Computational Materials Science, Vol. 41, 20-26, 2007.
29. Bois, K. J., A. D. Benally, P. S. Nowak, and R. Zoughi, "Curestate monitoring and water-to-cement ratio determination of fresh Portland cement-based materials using near-field microwave techniques," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., Vol. 47, 628-637, 1998.
30. Neville, A. M., Properties of Concrete, Longman Group, London, UK, 1996.
31. Malhotra, V. M. and N. J. Carino (eds.), Handbook on Nondestructive Testing of Concrete, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2004.
32. Cuinas, I. and M. G. Sanchez, "Building material characterization from complex transmittivity measurements at 5.8 GHz," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 48, 1269-1271, 2000.
33. Balanis, C. A., Advanced Engineering Electromagnetics, John Wiley & Sons, New Jersey, NJ, 1989.
34. Oppenheim, A. V., A. S. Willsky, and S. Hamid, Signals and Systems, Prentice Hall, USA, 1997.
35. Hasar, U. C., "Two novel amplitude-only methods for complex permittivity determination of medium- and low-loss materials," Meas. Sci. Techol., Vol. 19, 055706-055715, 2008.
36. Hasar, U. C., "Free-space non-destructive characterization of young mortar samples," J. Mater. Civ. Eng., Vol. 19, 674-682, 2007.
37. Hasar, U. C., C. R. Westgate, and M. Ertugrul, "Permittivity determination of liquid materials using waveguide measurements for industrial applications," IET Microw. Antennas Propag., Vol. 4, 10.1049/iet-map.2008.0197.
38. Hasar, U. C., C. R. Westgate, and M. Ertugrul, "Noniterative permittivity extraction of lossy liquid materials from reflection asymmetric amplitude-only microwave measurements," IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett., Vol. 19, 419-421, 2009.
39. Bois, K. J., L. F. Handjojo, A. D. Benally, K. Mubarak, and R. Zoughi, "Dielectric plug-loaded two-port transmission line measurement technique for dielectric property characterization of granular and liquid material," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., Vol. 48, 1141-1148, 1999.
40. Chin, G. Y. and E. A. Mechtly, "Properties of materials," Radio, Electronics, Computer, and Communications, E. C. Jordan (ed.), 4-20-4-23, Howard W. Sams & Co., Indianapolis, IN, 1986.
41. Hasar, U. C. and C. R. Westgate, "A broadband and stable method for unique complex permittivity determination of low-loss materials," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., Vol. 57, 471-477, 2009.
42. Engen, G. F. and C. A. Hoer, "Thru-reflect-line: An improved technique for calibrating the dual six-port automatic network analyzer," IEEE Microw. Theory and Tech., Vol. 27, 987-993, 1979.