Progress In Electromagnetics Research
ISSN: 1070-4698, E-ISSN: 1559-8985
Home | Search | Notification | Authors | Submission | PIERS Home | EM Academy
Home > Vol. 104 > pp. 427-448


By L. Bellomo, S. Pioch, M. Saillard, and E. Spano

Full Article PDF (1,260 KB)

We present a new RADAR system able to perform Phase Conjugation experiments over the ultrawideband [2-4] GHz. The system is equipped with a transmit/receive linear array made of eight antennas connected to a 2-port Vector Network Analyzer through eight independent couples of digitally-controlled RF attenuators and phase shifters. Thus, each channel can selectively transmit or receive and can as well attenuate and phase shift the RF signal. For each frequency, either the Phase Conjugation or the Decomposition of the Time Reversal Operator (DORT) is applied to the received signal and the appropriate amplitude and phase law is coded into the prototype; the focusing wave is then experimentally re-emitted by the array. The quality of the achieved backpropagation is evaluated both in frequency and time domain: in this sense we can speak of Time Reversal. The excellent agreement between measured and theoretical results validates the potential of our system.

L. Bellomo, S. Pioch, M. Saillard, and E. Spano, "Time Reversal Experiments in the Microwave Range: Description of the Radar and Results," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 104, 427-448, 2010.

1. Fink, M., C. Prada, F. Wu, and D. Cassereau, Self focusing in inhomogeneous media with time reversal acoustic mirrors, Proc. IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, Vol. 2, 681-686, 1989.

2. Fink, M., "Time reversal of ultrasonics fields --- Part I: Basic principles," IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelectr., Freq. Control., Vol. 39, 555-566, 1992.

3. Fink, M., D. Cassereau, A. Derode, C. Prada, P. Roux, M. Tanter, J.-L. Thomas, and F. Wu, "Time-reversed acoustics," Rep. Prog. Phys., Vol. 63, No. 12, 1933-1995, 2000.

4. Dubois, A., K. Belkebir, and M. Saillard, "Localization and characterization of two-dimensional targets buried in a cluttered environment ," Inv. Probl., Vol. 20, No. 6, S63-S79, 2004.

5. Belkebir, K., M. Saillard, O. Cmielewski, and H. Tortel, "Clutter rejection and inverse scattering," Proc. Journees de la Matiere Condensee, 210, Toulouse, France, 2006.

6. Belkebir, K., S. Bonnard, F. Pezin, P. Sabouroux, and M. Saillard, "Validation of 2D inverse scattering algorithms from multi-frequency experimental data," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 14, No. 12, 1637-1667, 2000.

7. Liu, X.-F., X.-F., B.-Z. Wang, S.-Q. Xiao, and J. H. Deng, "Performance of impulse radio UWB communications based on time reversal technique," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 79, 401-413, 2008.

8. Xiao, S.-Q., J. Chen, X.-F. Liu, and B.-Z.Wang, "Spatial focusing characteristics of time reversal UWB pulse transmission with different antenna arrays," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 2, 223-232, 2008.

9. Maaref, N., P. Millot, X. FerriĀµeres, C. Pichot, and O. Picon, "Electromagnetic imaging method based on time reversal processing applied to through-the-wall target localization," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 1, 59-67, 2008.

10. Zheng, W., Z. Zhao, Z.-P. Nie, and Q. H. Liu, "Evaluation of TRM in the complex through wall environment," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 90, 235-254, 2009.

11. Lerosey, G., J. de Rosny, A. Tourin, A. Derode, and M. Fink, "Time reversal of wideband microwaves," Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 88, No. 15, 154101, 2006.

12. Lerosey, G., J. de Rosny, A. Tourin, A. Derode, G. Montaldo, and M. Fink, "Time reversal of electromagnetic waves," Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol. 92, No. 19, 193904, 2004.

13. Khaleghi, A., G. El Zein, and I. Naqvi, Demonstration of time-reversal in indoor ultra-wideband communication: Time domain measurement, Proc. IEEE International Symposium on Wireless Communication Systems , 465-468, Trondheim, Norway, 2007.

14. Liu, D., S. Vasudevan, J. Krolik, G. Bal, and L. Carin, "Electromagnetic time-reversal source localization in changing media: Experiment and analysis ," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 55, No. 2, 344-354, 2007.

15. Cresp, A., I. Aliferis, M. J. Yedlin, J.-Y. Dauvignac, and C. Pichot, "Time-domain processing of electromagnetic data for multiple-target detection ," AIP Conf. Proc., 3rd Conference on Mathematical Modeling of Wave Phenomena, Vol. 1106, No. 1, 204-213, 2009.

16. Prada, C. and M. Fink, "Eigenmodes of the time reversal operator: A solution to selective focusing in multiple-target media," Wave Motion, Vol. 20, 151-163, 1994.

17. Tortel, H., G. Micolau, and M. Saillard, "Decomposition of the time reversal operator for electromagnetic scattering," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 13, No. 5, 687-719, 1999.

18. Micolau, G. and M. Saillard, "D.O.R.T. method as applied to electromagnetic subsurface sensing," Radio Sci., Vol. 38, No. 3, S63-S79, 2003.

19. Chambers, D. H. and A. K. Gautesen, "Analysis of the time-reversal operator for a small spherical scatterer in an electromagnetic field," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 52, No. 7, 1729-1738, 2004.

20. Derode, A., P. Roux, and M. Fink, "Robust acoustic time reversal with high-order multiple scattering," Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol. 75, No. 7, 1729-1738, 2004.

21. Draeger, C. and M. Fink, "One-channel time reversal of elastic waves in a chaotic 2d-silicon cavity," Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol. 79, No. 3, 407-410, 1997.

22. Kuperman, W. A., W. S. Hodgkiss, H. C. Song, T. Akal, C. Ferla, and D. R. Jackson, "Phase Conjugation in the ocean: Experimental demonstration of an acoustic time-reversal mirror," J. Acoust. Soc. Amer., Vol. 103, 25-40, 1998.

23. Mordant, N., C. Prada, and M. Fink, "Highly resolved detection and selective focusing in a waveguide using the D.O.R.T. method," J. Acoust. Soc. Amer., Vol. 105, No. 5, 2634-2642, 1999.

24. Yavuz, M. E. and F. L. Teixiera, "Space-frequency ultrawideband time-reversal imaging," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., Vol. 46, No. 4, 115-124, 2008.

25. Philippe, F. D., C. Prada, D. Clorennec, M. Fink, and T. Folegot, "Construction of the temporal invariants of the time-reversal operator," J. Acoust. Soc. Amer. Express Letters, Vol. 126, No. 1, EL8-EL13, 2009.

26. Micolau, G., M. Saillard, and P. Borderies, "DORT method as applied to ultrawideband signals for detection of buried objects," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., Vol. 41, No. 8, 1813-1820, 2003.

27. Stewart, G. W., Matrix Algorithms-volume II: Eigensystems, SIAM, Philadelphia, New York, 1998.

28. Borcea, L., G. Papanicolaou, C. Tsogka, and J. Berryman, "Imaging and time reversal in random media," Inv. Prob., Vol. 18, No. 5, 1247-1279, 2002.

29. Guillanton, E., J. Y. Dauvignac, C. Pichot, and J. Cashman, "A new design tapered slot antenna for ultra-wideband applications," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 19, No. 4, 286-289, 1998.

30. Pozar, D. M., Microwave Engineering, John Wiley & Sons, Toronto, 1998.

31. Derode, A., A. Tourin, and M. Fink, "Time reversal versus phase conjugation in a multiple scattering environment," Ultrasonics, Vol. 40, 275-280, 2002.

32. Horn, R. A. and C. R. Johnson, Matrix Analysis, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1985.

33. Borcea, L., G. Papanicolaou, and C. Tsogka, "Optimal waveform design for array imaging," Inv. Probl., Vol. 23, No. 5, 1973-2020, 2007.

© Copyright 2014 EMW Publishing. All Rights Reserved