Progress In Electromagnetics Research
ISSN: 1070-4698, E-ISSN: 1559-8985
Home | Search | Notification | Authors | Submission | PIERS Home | EM Academy
Home > Vol. 105 > pp. 313-332


By Y. S. Meng and Y. H. Lee

Full Article PDF (257 KB)

In this paper, a large number of studies of the effect of the foliage on single or lines of trees on modern wireless communication systems are reviewed. The paper is focused on the experimental works mainly done for commercial applications such as cellular communication and high speed point-to-point fixed link at the microwave and millimeter wave frequencies. For this review study, the development of the foliage loss prediction methods and the factors influencing the tree-induced shadowing effect are highlighted. In view of current research work in this area, some possible future works are proposed to improve the performance of modern wireless communication systems with the effect of foliage.

Y. S. Meng and Y. H. Lee, "Investigations of foliage effect on modern wireless communication systems: a review," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 105, 313-332, 2010.

1. Karaliopoulos, M. S. and F. N. Pavlidou, "Modelling the land mobile satellite channel: A review," IEE Electron. Commun. Eng. J., Vol. 11, No. 5, 235-248, 1999.

2. Bertoni, H. L., Radio Propagation for Modern Wireless Systems, Prentice Hall PTR, New Jersey, 2000.

3. Rogers, N. C., A. Seville, J. Richter, D. Ndzi, N. Savage, R. Caldeirinha, A. Shukla, M. O. Al-Nuaimi, K. H. Craig, E. Vilar, and J. Austin, A generic model of 1-60 GHz radio propagation through vegetation, Tech. Report, Radiocommunications Agency, May 2002.

4. Meng, Y. S., Y. H. Lee, and B. C. Ng, "Study of propagation loss prediction in forest environment," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 17, 117-133, 2009.

5. Akyildiz, I. F., W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam, and E. Cayirci, "Wireless sensor networks: A survey," Computer Networks, Vol. 38, No. 4, 393-422, 2002.

6. Paulraj, A. J., D. A. Gore, R. U. Nabar, and H. Bolcskei, "An overview of MIMO communications --- A key to gigabit wireless," IEEE Proc., Vol. 92, No. 2, 198-218, 2004.

7. Molisch, A. F., "Ultrawideband propagation channels-theory, measurement, and modeling," IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., Vol. 54, No. 5, 1528-1545, 2005.

8. Karapantazis, S. and F. N. Pavlidou, "Broadband communications via high-altitude platforms: A survey," IEEE Commun. Surveys & Tutorials, Vol. 7, No. 1, 2-31, 2005.

9. Lee, Y. H., Y. S. Meng, and O. N. Tay, "Characterization of Wi-Fi antenna system on a remote controlled helicopter," Proc. 2008 Asia-Pacific Symp. Electromagn. Compat. & 19th Int. Zurich Symp. Electromagn. Compat., 319-322, Singapore, May, 2008.

10. Weissberger, M. A., "An initial critical summary of models for predicting the attenuation of radio waves by foliage," ECAC-TR-81-101, Electromagn. Compat. Analysis Center, Annapolis, MD, 1981, Geneva, 1986.

11. CCIR, In°uences of terrain irregularities and vegetation on troposphere propagation, , 235-236 CCIR Report, Geneva, 1986.

12. COST235, Radio propagation effects on next-generation fixed-service terrestrial telecommunication systems, Final Report, Luxembourg, 1996.

13. Al-Nuaimi, M. O. and R. B. L. Stephens, "Measurements and prediction model optimization for signal attenuation in vegetation media at centimetre wave frequencies ," IEE Proc. Microw. Antennas Propag., Vol. 145, No. 3, 201-206, 1998.

14. Seville, A. and K. H. Craig, "Semi-empirical model for millimetre-wave vegetation attenuation rates," Electron. Lett., Vol. 31, No. 17, 1507-1508, 1995.

15. Seville, A., "Vegetation attenuation: Modeling and measurements at millimetric frequencies," Proc. 10th IEE Int. Conf. Antennas Propag., 2.5-2.8, Edinburgh, Scotland, Apr. 1997.

16. ITU-R P.833-3, Attenuation in vegetation, Int. Telecommun. Union, Geneva, Feb. 2001.

17. Stephens, R. B. L. and M. O. Al-Nuaimi, "Attenuation measurement and modelling in vegetation media at 11.2 and 20 GHz," Electron. Lett., Vol. 31, No. 20, 1783-1785, 1995.

18. Mosesen, K., Vegetation attenuation of microwave: Measurements and model evaluation, Tech. Rep. FFI/RAPPORT-2002/04143, Norwegian Defence Research Establishment, Dec. 2002.

19. Savage, N., D. Ndzi, A. Seville, E. Vilar, and J. Austin, "Radio wave propagation through vegetation: Factors influencing signal attenuation," Radio Sci., Vol. 38, No. 5, 1088, 2003.

20. Vogel, W. J. and J. Goldhirsh, "Tree attenuation at 869MHz derived from remotely piloted aircraft measurements," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 34, No. 12, 1460-1464, 1986.

21. Goldhirsh, J. and W. J. Vogel, "Roadside tree attenuation measurements at UHF for land mobile satellite systems," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 35, No. 5, 589-596, 1987.

22. Vogel, W. J. and J. Goldhirsh, "Fade measurements at L-band and UHF in mountainous terrain for land mobile satellite systems," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 36, No. 1, 104-113, 1988.

23. Goldhirsh, J. and W. J. Vogel, "Mobile satellite system fade statistics for shadowing and multipath from roadside trees at UHF and L-band," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 37, No. 4, 489-498, 1989.

24. Vogel, W. J. and J. Goldhirsh, "Earth-satellite tree attenuation at 20 GHz: Foliage effects," Electron. Lett., Vol. 29, No. 18, 1640-1641, 1993.

25. Cavdar, I. H., "UHF and L band propagation measurements to obtain log-normal shadowing parameters for mobile satellite link design ," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 51, No. 1, 126-130, 2003.

26. Sofos, T. and P. Constantinou, "Propagation model for vegetation effects in terrestrial and satellite mobile systems," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 52, No. 7, 1917-1920, 2004.

27. Johnson, R. A. and F. Schwering, A transport theory of millimeter wave propagation in woods and forest, Tech. Rep. CECOM-TR-85-1, Forth Monmouth, 1985.

28. Schwering, F. K., E. J. Violette, and R. H. Espeland, "Millimeter-wave propagation in vegetation: Experiments and theory," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing, Vol. 26, No. 3, 355-367, 1988.

29. Al-Nuaimi, M. O. and A. M. Hammoudeh, "Measurements and predictions of attenuation and scatter of microwave signals by trees," IEE Proc. Microw. Antennas Propag., Vol. 141, No. 2, 70-76, 1994.

30. Didascalou, D., M. Younis, and W. Wiesbeck, "Millimeter-wave scattering and penetration in isolated vegetation structures," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing, Vol. 38, No. 5, 2106-2113, 2000.

31. Fernandes, T. R., R. F. S. Cladeirinha, M. O. Al-Nuaimi, and J. H. Richter, "A discrete RET model for millimetre-wave propagation in isolated tree formations," IEICE Trans. Commun., Vol. E88-B, No. 6, 2411-2418, 2005.

32. Fernandes, T. R., R. F. S. Caldeirinha, M. O. Al-Nuaimi, and J. H. Richter, Modeling radiowave propagation through vegetation media: A comparison between RET and dRET models , Proc. Second European Conf. Antennas Propag., Edinburgh, UK, Nov. 2007.

33. St Michael, H. and I. Otung, Characterization and prediction of excess attenuation of microwave radio signals by vegetation forms, Proc. 12th IEE Int. Conf. Antennas Propag., Exeter, UK, 637-640, Mar.-Apr. 2003.

34. ITU-R P.833-6, Attenuation in vegetation, Int. Telecommun. Union, Geneva, Feb. 2007.

35. Lin, Y. C. and K. Sarabandi, "A Monte Carlo coherent scattering model for forest canopies using fractal-generated trees," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing, Vol. 37, No. 1, 440-451, 1999.

36. Koh, I. S. and K. Sarabandi, "Polarimetric channel characterization of foliage for performance assessment of GPS receivers under tree canopies," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 50, No. 5, 713-726, 2002.

37. Koh, I. S., F. Wang, and K. Sarabandi, "Estimation of coherent field attenuation through dense foliage including multiple scattering," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing, Vol. 41, No. 5, 1132-1135, 2003.

38. Wang, F. and K. Sarabandi, "An enhanced millimeter-wave foliage propagation model," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 53, No. 7, 2138-2145, 2005.

39. Wang, F. and K. Sarabandi, "A physics-based statistical model for wave propagation through foliage," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 55, No. 3, 958-968, 2007.

40. Bultitude, R., "Measured characteristics of 800/900MHz fading radio channels with high angle propagation through moderately dense foliage," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., Vol. 5, No. 2, 116-127, 1987.

41. Butt, G., B. G. Evans, and M. Richharia, "Narrowband channel statistics from multiband propagation measurements applicable to high elevation angle land-mobile satellite systems ," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., Vol. 10, No. 8, 1219-1226, 1992.

42. Kanatas, A. G. and P. Constantinou, "City center high-elevation angle propagation measurements at L band for land mobile satellite systems," IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., Vol. 47, No. 3, 1002-1011, 1998.

43. Al-Nuaimi, M. O. and R. B. L. Stephens, "Estimation of the effects of hilltop, singly distributed, trees on the path loss of microwave signals," Electron. Lett., Vol. 33, No. 10, 873-874, 1997.

44. Gans, M. J., N. Amitay, Y. S. Yeh, T. C. Damen, R. A. Valenzuela, C. Cheon, and J. Lee, "Propagation measurements for fixed wireless loops (FWL) in a suburban region with foliage and terrain blockages ," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., Vol. 1, No. 2, 302-310, 2002.

45. Durgin, G., T. S. Rappaport, and H. Xu, "Measurements and models for radio path loss and penetration loss in and around homes and trees at 5.85 GHz," IEEE Trans. Commun., Vol. 46, No. 11, 1484-1496, 1998.

46. Lewenz, R., "Path loss variation due to vegetation movement," Proc. IEE National Conf. Antennas Propag., 97-100, York, UK, Mar.-Apr. 1999.

47. Pelet, E. R., J. E. Salt, and G. Wells, "Effect of wind on foliage obstructed line-of-sight channel at 2.5 GHz," IEEE Trans. Broadcasting., Vol. 50, No. 3, 224-232, 2004.

48. Naz, N. and D. D. Falconer, Temporal variations characterization for fixed wireless at 29.5 GHz, Proc. IEEE 51st Veh. Technol. Conf., 2178-2182, Tokyo, Japan, May 2000.

49. Kajiwara, A., Foliage attenuation characteristics for LMDS radio channel, IEICE Trans. Commun., Vol. E83-B, No. 9, 2130-2134, 2000.

50. Perras, S. and L. Bouchard, "Fading characteristics of RF signals due to foliage in frequency bands from 2 to 60 GHz," Proc. 5th Int. Symp. Wireless Personal Multimedia Commun., 267-271, Honolulu, Hawaii, Oct. 2002.

51. Hashim, M. H. and S. Stavrou, "Measurements and modelling of wind in°uence on radio wave propagation through vegetation," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., Vol. 5, No. 5, 1055-1064, 2006.

52. Crosby, D., V. S. Abhayawardhana, I. J. Wassell, M. G. Brown, and M. P. Sellars, "Time variability of the foliated fixed wireless access channel at 3.5 GHz," Proc. IEEE 61st Veh. Technol. Conf., 106-110, Stockholm, Sweden, May.-Jun, 2005.

53. Dal Bello, J. C. R., G. L. Siqueira, and H. L. Bertoni, "Theoretical analysis and measurement results of vegetation effects on path loss or mobile cellular communication systems," IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., Vol. 49, No. 4, 1285-1293, 2000.

54. Liou, A. E. L., K. N. Sivertsen, and D. G. Michelson, "Characterization of time variation on 1.9 GHz fixed wireless channels in suburban macrocell environments," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., Vol. 8, No. 8, 3975-3979, 2009.

55. Dilworth, I. J. and B. L'Ebraly, "Propagation effects due to foliage and building scatter at millimetre wavelengths," Proc. 9th IEE Int. Conf. Antennas Propag., 51-53, Eindhoven, Netherlands, Apr. 1995.

56. Dalley, J. E. J., M. S. Smith, and D. N. Adams, Propagation losses due to foliage at various frequencies, Proc. IEE National Conf. Antennas Propag., 267-270, York, UK, Mar.-Apr. 1999.

57. Pechac, P., P. Ledl, and M. Mazanek, Modeling and measurement of dynamic vegetation effects at 38 GHz, Proc.URSI-F Tri. Open Symp., 147-155, Cairns, Australia, Jun. 2004.

58. Cheffena, M. and T. Ekman, "Dynamic model of signal fading due to swaying vegetation," EURASIP J. Wireless Commun. Networking, Vol. 2009, 1-11, 2009.

59. Torrico, S. A., H. L. Bertoni, and R. H. Lang, "Modeling tree effects on path loss in a residential environment," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 46, No. 6, 872-880, 1998.

60. De Jong, Y. L. C. and M. H. A. J. Herben, "A tree-scattering model for improved propagation prediction in urban microcells," IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., Vol. 53, No. 2, 503-513, 2004.

61. Torrico, S. A. and R. H. Lang, "A simplified analytical model to predict the specific attenuation of a tree canopy," IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., Vol. 56, No. 2, 696-703, 2007.

62. Seville, A., P. Lindhom, A. Paulsen, and I. S. Usman, "Vegetation effects of consideration for broadband fixed radio access systems at frequencies above 20 GHz," Proc. 12th IEE Int. Conf. Antennas Propag., 284-287, Exeter, UK, Mar.-Apr. 2003.

63. Takahashi, N., S. Ueno, and R. Ohmoto, Using space diversity against attenuation through vegetation: A field study for quasimm wave band fixed wireless access systems, Proc. 2005 Asia-Pac. Microw. Conf., Suzhou, China, Dec. 2005.

64. Stephens, R. B. L., M. O. Al-Nuaimi, and R. Caldeirinha, "Characterisation of depolarisation of radio signals by single trees at 20 GHz," Proc. National Radio Sci Conf., B12/1-B12/8, Cairo, Egypt, Feb. 1998.

© Copyright 2014 EMW Publishing. All Rights Reserved