Progress In Electromagnetics Research
ISSN: 1070-4698, E-ISSN: 1559-8985
Home | Search | Notification | Authors | Submission | PIERS Home | EM Academy
Home > Vol. 106 > pp. 177-202


By A. G. Pavelyev, Y.-A. Liou, J. Wickert, K. Zhang, C.-S. Wang, and Y. Kuleshov

Full Article PDF (1,072 KB)

An analytical model for the description of the electromagnetic waves propagation in a layered medium consisting of sectors having the locally spherical symmetric distributions of refractivity is introduced. Model presents analytical expressions for the phase path and refractive attenuation of electromagnetic waves. Influence of the inclined ionospheric layers is a cause of the ionospheric interference in the trans-ionospheric communication satellite-to-satellite or satellite-to-Earth links. It follows from the analytical model that the identification of the inclined ionospheric layers contributions and measurements of their location and parameters may be fulfilled by use of comparative analysis of the amplitude variations and the eikonal acceleration of the RO signals. Model is applied to analysis of the radio occultation (RO) signals propagating through the ionosphere and atmosphere. Model explains existence of the ionospheric contributions in the RO signals at the altitudes 30-90 km of the RO ray perigee as connected with influence of a tangent point in the ionosphere where the electron density gradient is perpendicular to the RO ray trajectory. By use of the CHAMP RO amplitude data a description of different types of the ionospheric contributions to the RO signals is introduced and compared with results of measurements obtained earlier in the communication link satellite-to-Earth at frequency 1.5415 GHz of MARSAT satellite.

A. G. Pavelyev, Y.-A. Liou, J. Wickert, K. Zhang, C.-S. Wang, and Y. Kuleshov, "Analytical model of electromagnetic waves propagation and location of inclined plasma layers using occultation data," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 106, 177-202, 2010.

1. Melbourne, W. G., E. S. Davis, C. B. Duncan, G. A. Hajj, K. R. Hardy, E. R. Kursinski, T. K. Meehan, L. E. Young, and T. P. Yunck, "The application of spaceborne GPS to atmospheric limb sounding and global change monitoring," JPL Publication 94-18, 147, 1994.

2. Ware, R., M. Exner, D. Feng, M. Gorbunov, K. Hardy, B. Herman, Y.-H. Kuo, T. Meehan, W. Melbourn, C. Rocken, W. Schreiner, S. Sokolovskiy, F. Solheim, X. Zou, R. Anthes, S. Businger, and K. Trenberth, "GPS soundings of the atmosphere from low earth orbit: Preliminary results," Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc., Vol. 77, 19-40, 1996.

3. Kursinski, E. R., et al., "Observing Earth's atmosphere with radio occultation measurements using the global positioning system," J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 102, 23429-23465, 1997.

4. Hajj, G. A. and L. J. Romans, "Ionospheric electron density profiles obtained with the global positioning system: Results from GPS/MET experiment," Radio Sci., Vol. 33, No. 1, 175-190, 1998.

5. Steiner, A. K., G. Kirchengast, and H. P. Landreiter, "Inversion, error analysis, and validation of GPS/MET occultation data," Ann. Geophys., Vol. 17, 122-138, 1999.

6. Wickert, J., C. Reigber, G. Beyerle, R. Konig, C. Marquardt, T. Schmidt, L. Grunwaldt, R. Galas, T. K. Meehan, W. G. Melbourne, and K. Hocke, "Atmosphere sounding by GPS radio occultation: First results from CHAMP," Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 28, No. 19, 3263-3266, 2001.

7. Yakovlev, O. I., Space Radio Science, 306, Taylor and Francis, London, 2003.

8. Melbourne, W. G., Radio Occultations Using Earth Satellites: A Wave Theory Treatment, 610, Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology, Monograph 6, Deep space communications and navigation series, Issued by the Deep Space Communications and Navigation Systems Center of Excellence Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology, J. H. Yuen, Editor-in-Chief, 2004.

9. Jakowski, N., R. Leitinger, and M. Angling, "Radio occultation techniques for probing the ionosphere," Annals of Geophysics, Supplement to V, Vol. 47, No. 2-3, 1049-1066, 2004.

10. Kunitsyn, V. E. and E. D. Tereshchenko, Ionospheric Tomography, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2003.

11. Liou, Y.-A., A. G. Pavelyev, C.-Y. Huang, K. Igarashi, K. Hocke, and S. K. Yan, "Analytic method for observation of the GW using RO data," Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 30, No. 23, ASC 1-1-1-5, 2003.

12. Igarashi, K., A. Pavelyev, K. Hocke, D. Pavelyev, and J. Wickert, "Observation of wave structures in the upper atmosphere by means of radio holographic analysis of the RO data," Advances in Space Research, Vol. 27, No. 6-7, 1321-1327, 2001.

13. Hocke, K., A. Pavelyev, O. Yakovlev, L. Barthes, and N. Jakowski, "RO data analysis by radio holographic method," JASTP, Vol. 61, 1169-1177, 1999.

14. Vorob'ev, V. V., A. S. Gurvich, V. Kan, S. V. Sokolovskiy, O. V. Fedorova, and A. V. Shmakov, "Structure of the ionosphere from the radio-occultation GPS-"Microlab-1" satellite data: Preliminary results," Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, Vol. 15, 609-622, 1999.

15. Steiner, A. K. and G. Kirchengast, "GW spectra from GPS/MET occultation observations," J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., Vol. 17, 495-503, 2000.

16. Igarashi, K., A. Pavelyev, K. Hocke, D. Pavelyev, I. A. Kucherjavenkov, S. Matugov, A. Zakharov, and O. Yakovlev, "Radio holographic principle for observing natural processes in the atmosphere and retrieving meteorological parameters from RO data," Earth Planets Space, Vol. 52, No. 14, 868-875, 2000.

17. Gorbunov, M. E., "Ionospheric correction and statistical optimization of radio occultation data," Radio Science, Vol. 37, No. 8, 17-1-17-9, 2002.

18. Pavelyev, A. G., Y. A. Liou, C. Y. Huang, C. Reigber, J. Wickert, K. Igarashi, and K. Hocke, "Radio holographic method for the study of the ionosphere, atmosphere and terrestrial surface using GPS occultation signals," GPS Solutions, Vol. 6, 101-108, 2002.

19. Liou, Y.-A., A. G. Pavelyev, C.-Y. Huang, K. Igarashi, and K. Hocke, "Simultaneous observation of the vertical gradients of refractivity in the atmosphere and electron density in the lower ionosphere by radio occultation amplitude method," Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 29, No. 21, 43-1-43-4, 2002.

20. Vorob'ev, V. V. and T. G. Krasilnikova, "Estimation of accuracy of the atmosphere refractive index recovery from Doppler shift measurements at frequencies used in the NAVSTAR system," Izv. Russ. Acad. Sci., Physics of the Atmosphere and Ocean, Engl. Transl., Vol. 29, No. 10, 602-609, 1994.

21. Sokolovskiy, S. V., "Inversion of RO amplitude data," Radio Sci., Vol. 35, No. 1, 97-105, 2000.

22. Sokolovskiy, S. V., W. Schreiner, C. Rocken, and D. Hunt, "Detection of high-altitude ionospheric irregularities with GPS/MET," Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 29, No. 3, 621-625, 2002.

23. Wickert, J., et al., "Amplitude variations in GPS signals as a possible indicator of ionospheric structures," Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 31, No. 24, ASC 1-1-1-5, 2004.

24. Liou, Y.-A., A. G. Pavelyev, C.-Y. Huang, K. Igarashi, K. Hocke, and S. K. Yan, "Analytic method for observation of the GW using RO data," Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 30, No. 23, ASC 1-1-1-5, 2003.

25. Liou, Y. A., A. G. Pavelyev, and J. Wickert, "Observation of gravity waves from GPS/MET radio occultation data," J. Atmos. Solar-terr. Phys., Vol. 67, 219-228, 2005.

26. Karasawa, Y., K. Yasukawa, and M. Yamada, "Ionospheric scintillation measurement at 1.5 GHz in mid-latitude region," Radio Science, Vol. 20, No. 3, 643-651, 1985.

27. Yeh, K. C. and C. H. Liu, "Radio wave scintillations in the ionosphere," Proc. IEEE, Vol. 70, No. 7, 324-360, 1982.

28. Liou, Y. A. and A. G. Pavelyev, "Simultaneous observations of radio wave phase and intensity variations for locating the plasma layers in the ionosphere," Geophys Res Lett, Vol. 33, No. 26, L23102 1-5, 2006.

29. Pavelyev, A. G., Y. A. Liou, J. Wickert, A. L. Gavrik, and C. C. Lee, "Eikonal acceleration technique for studying of the Earth and planetary atmospheres by radio occultation method," Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 36, L21807 1-5, 2009.

30. Ahmad, B. and G. Leonard Tyler, "Systematic errors in atmospheric profiles obtained from Abelian inversion of radio occultation data: Effects of large-scale horizontal gradients," J. Geoph. Res., Vol. 104, No. D4, 3971-3992, 1999.

31. Pavelyev, A. G. and A. I. Kucherjavenkov, "Refractive attenuation in the planetary atmospheres," Radio Eng. and Electron. Phys., Vol. 23, No. 10, 13-19, 1978.

32. Pavelyev, A. G., Y. A. Liou, J. Wickert, T. Schmidt, A. A. Pavelyev, and S. F. Liu, "Effects of the ionosphere and solar activity on radio occultation signals: Application to challenging minisatellite payload satellite observations," J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 112, No. A06326, 1-14, 2007.

33. Liou, Y. A., A. G. Pavelyev, S.-F. Liu, A. A. Pavelyev, N. Yen, C. Y. Huang, and C.-J. Fong, "FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC GPS radio occultation mission: Preliminary results," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 45, No. 14, 3813-3826, 2007.

34. Pavelyev, A. G., J. Wickert, and Y. A. Liou, "Localization of plasma layers in the ionosphere based on observing variations in the amplitude and phase of radiowaves along the satellite-to-satellite path," Radiophysics and Quantum Electronics, Vol. 51, No. 1, 1-8, 2008.

35. Pavelyev, A. G., Y. A. Liou, J. Wickert, A. A. Pavelyev, T. Schmidt, K. Igarashi, and S. S. Matyugov, "Location of layered structures in the ionosphere and atmosphere by use of GPS occultation data," Advances in Space Research, Vol. 42, 224-228, 2008.

36. Pavelyev, A. G., Y.-A. Liou, J. Wickert, T. Schmidt, A. A. Pavelyev, and S. S. Matyugov, "Phase acceleration: A new important parameter in GPS occultation technology," GPS Solutions, Vol. 14, No. 1, 3-14, 2010.

© Copyright 2014 EMW Publishing. All Rights Reserved