Progress In Electromagnetics Research
ISSN: 1070-4698, E-ISSN: 1559-8985
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By C. Qi, Z. Zhao, W. Yang, Z.-P. Nie, and G. Chen

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The electromagnetic scattering of the synthesized three-dimensional (3-D) breaking wave crests which are formed by azimuthally aligning the individual 2-D breaking wave profiles has been numerically studied at the low-grazing angles (LGA) by using the multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA) with adaptive higher order hierarchical Legendre basis functions. Different from the specular (or quasi-specular) reflection and Bragg scattering, the ``sea-spike'' phenomenon which is characterized by that horizontally polarization (HH) signals greatly exceed vertically polarization (VV) signals has been demonstrated by analyzing both the backscattering of 3-D LONGTANK series and a plunging breaker. For the time-dependent evolution of the plunging breaker, the Doppler shifts and Doppler splitting effects are investigated by applying the fast Fourier transform (FFT) with a moving Hamming window. The spectrum of HH scattering has the feature of concentration, while the spectrum of VV scattering shows the Doppler splitting effects.

C. Qi, Z. Zhao, W. Yang, Z.-P. Nie, and G. Chen, "Electromagnetic Scattering and Doppler Analysis of Three-Dimensional Breaking Wave Crests at Low-Grazing Angles," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 119, 239-252, 2011.

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