In this paper, we propose a multi-beam and multi-range (MBMR) radar with frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) waveform and digital beam forming (DBF) algorithm to cover a detection area of long range and narrow angle (150 m, ±10°) as well as short range and wide angle (60 m, ±30°) as a single 24 GHz sensor. The developed radar is highly integrated with multiple phased-array antennas, a two-channel transmitter and a four-channel receiver using K-band GaAs RF ICs, and back-end processing board with subspace-based DBF algorithm. The proposed 24 GHz MBMR radar can be used for an adaptive cruise control (ACC) stop-and-go system which typically consists of three radars, such as two 24 GHz short-range radars for object detection in an adjacent lane and one 77 GHz long-range radar for object detection in the center lane.
2. Russel, M. E., A. Crain, A. Campbell, C. A. Drubin, and W. F. Miccioli, "Millimeter-wave radar sensor for automotive intelligent cruise control (ICC)," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., Vol. 45, No. 12, 2444-2453, Dec. 1997.
3. Giubbolini, L., "A multistatic microwave radar sensor for short range anticollision warning," IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., Vol. 49, No. 6, 2270-2275, Nov. 2000.
4. Wenger, J., "Automotive MM-wave radar: Status and trends in system design and technology," IEE Colloquium on Automotive Radar and Navigation Techniques, Feb. 1998.
5. Rasshofer, R. H. and K. Gresser, "Automotive radar and lidar systems for next generation driver assistance functions," Advances in Radio Science, Vol. 3, 205-209, 2005.
6. IVHS countermeasures for rear-end collisions, task 1: Volume VI Human factors studies, U.S. Dept. Transportation, Washington, DC, Feb. 1994. [Online]. DOT Rep. HS 808 565.Available: http://www.itsdocs.fhwa.dot.gov/jpodocs/repts te/45101!.pdf.
7. Zechnall, M. The `sensitive' automobile-Bosch sensors for complete environmental sensing, Press release, Bosch GMBH, Reutlingen, Germany, Apr. 2001.
8. Rasshofer, R. H. and K. Naab, "77 GHz long range radar systems status, ongoing developments and future challenges," Radar Conf., 2005. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?arnumber =01605590.
9. Kawakubo, A., S. Tokoro, Y. Yamada, and T. Kawasaki, "Electronically-scanning millimeter-wave RADAR for forward objects detection," SAE Congress, Vol. 127, No. 134, 2004.
10. Wixforth, T. and W. Ritschel, "Multimode-radar-technologie für 24 GHz," Auto Elektronik, Vol. 3, 56-58, 2004.
11. Gresham, I., et al., "Ultra-wideband radar sensors for short-range vehicular applications," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., Vol. 52, No. 9, 2105-2122, Sep. 2004.
12. Jeong, S. H., J. N. Oh, and K. H. Lee, "Design of 24 GHz radar with subspace-based digital beam forming for ACC stop-and-go system," ETRI Journal, Vol. 32, No. 5, 827-830, Oct. 2010.
13. Lee, M. S. and Y. H. Kim, "Design and performance of a 24-GHz switch-antenna array FMCW radar system for automotive applications," IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., Vol. 59, No. 5, 2290-2297, Jun. 2010.
14. Yamaguchi, Y., M. Mitsumoto, M. A. Kawakami, M. Sengoku, and T. Abe, "Detection of objects by synthetic aperture FMCW radar," Electron. Commun. Jpn. I: Commun., Vol. 75, No. 3, 85-94, Mar. 1992.
15. Ishimaru, A. and H. S. Tuan, "Theory of frequency scanning antennas," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 10, Mar. 1962.
16. Lange, M., J. Detlefsen, M. Bockmair, and U. Trampnau, "A millimeterwave low-range radar altimeter for helicopter applications --- System design," Conf. Proc. European Microwave Conf., 222-227, 1987.
17. Boukari, B., E. Moldvan, S. Affes, K. Wu, R. G. Bosisio, and S. O. Tatu, "A heterodyne six-port FMCW radar sensor architecture based on beat signal phase slope techniques," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 93, 307-322, 2009.
18. Huang, Y., P. V. Brennan, D. Patrick, I. Weller, P. Roberts, and K. Hughes, "FMCW based MIMO imaging radar for maritime navigation," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 115, 327-342, 2011.
19. Axelsson, S., "Area target response of triangularly frequency-modulated continuous-wave radars," IEEE Trans. Aerospace Electron. Syst., Vol. 14, 266-277, Mar. 1978.
20. Li, D. D., S. C. Luo, C. Pero, X.Wu, and R. M. Knox, "Millimeter-wave FMCW/monopulse radar front-end for automotive applications," MTT-S Int. Microwave Symp. Dig., 277-280, 1999.
21. O'Halloran, M., M. Glavin, and E. Jones, "Channel-ranked beamformer for the early detection of breast cancer," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 103, 153-168, 2010.
22. Yang, P., F. Yang, and Z.-P. Nie, "DOA estimation with subarray divided technique and interporlated ESPRIT algorithm on a cylindrical conformal array antenna," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 103, 201-216, 2010.
23. Alsehaili, M., S. Noghanian, A. R. Sebak, and D. A. Buchanan, "Angle and time of arrival statistics of a three dimensional geometrical scattering channel model for indoor and outdoor propagation environments," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 109, 191-209, 2010.
24. Zhang, X., G. Feng, and D. Xu, "Blind direction of angle and time delay estimation algorithm for uniform linear array employing multi-invariance MUSIC," Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 13, 11-20, 2010.
25. Lee, J.-H., Y.-S. Jeong, S.-W. Cho, W.-Y. Yeo, and K. S. J. Pister, "Application of the Newton method to improve the accuracy of toa estimation with the beamforming algorithm and the music algorithm," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 116, 475-515, 2011.
26. Krim, H. and M. Viberg, "Two decades of array signal processing research," IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, Jul. 1996.
27. Chen, Z. and S. Otto, "A taper optimization for pattern synthesis of microstrip series-fed patch array antennas," IEEE EUWIT, 160-163, 2009.
28. Musch, T., "A high precision 24-GHz FMCW radar based on a fractional-N ramp-PLL," IEEE Trans. Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 52, 324-327, Apr. 2003.
29. Bartlett, M. S., "Smoothing periodograms from time-series with continuous spectra," Nature, Vol. 161, 686-687, 1948.
30. Schmidt, R. O. A signal subspace approach to multiple emitter location and spectral estimation, Ph.D. Thesis, Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA, Nov. 1981.
31. Schmidt, R., "Multiple emitter location and signal parameter estimation," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 34, 276-280, Mar. 1986.
32. Lee, H. B. and M. S. Wengrovitz, "Resolution threshold of beamspace MUSIC for two closely spaced emitters," IEEE Trans. Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, Vol. 38, 1545-1559, Sep. 1990.
33. Li, J., "Improved angular resolution for spatial smoothing techniques," IEEE Trans. Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, Vol. 40, 3078-3081, Dec. 1992.
34. Rawiwan, P., P. Satayarak, P. Supanakoon, M. Chamchoy, S. Promwong, and P. Tangtisanon, "Direction-of-arrival estimation using MUSIC and ESPRIT algorithm," EECON-24, 682-686, Nov. 2001.
35. Phaisal-atsawasenee, N. and R. Suleesathira, Improved angular resolution of beamspace MUSIC for finding directions of coherent sources, IEEE ISSCAA, 51-56, Harbin, China, Jan. 2006.