PIER
 
Progress In Electromagnetics Research
ISSN: 1070-4698, E-ISSN: 1559-8985
Home | Search | Notification | Authors | Submission | PIERS Home | EM Academy
Home > Vol. 124 > pp. 187-210

ON BODY CONCEALED WEAPON DETECTION USING A PHASED ANTENNA ARRAY

By S. W. Harmer, S. E. Cole, N. J. Bowring, N. D. Rezgui, and D. Andrews

Full Article PDF (479 KB)

Abstract:
The detection and identification of metal items and, in particular weapons, of linear size ≥10 cm, concealed upon the human body, is demonstrated as being entirely feasible by using a phased array of suitably ultra wide band transceivers. The complex natural resonances and especially the fundamental resonance, are excited by ultra wide band, stepped frequency continuous wave illumination of the target, using a phased array of antennae to focus the radiation. Broadband illumination of the target with microwave radiation of suitable frequency range (Typically 0.3-3 GHz for handgun sized objects) excites low order complex natural resonances and the late time response of the concealed item can be spatially located using phased array imaging techniques. Further processing of the late time response enables classification of the concealed object, based on the complex natural resonant frequencies of the object, so that threat items such as handguns and knives can be differentiated from benign items such as mobile phone handsets and cameras.

Citation:
S. W. Harmer, S. E. Cole, N. J. Bowring, N. D. Rezgui, and D. Andrews, "On Body Concealed Weapon Detection Using a Phased Antenna Array," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 124, 187-210, 2012.
doi:10.2528/PIER11112105
http://www.jpier.org/PIER/pier.php?paper=11112105

References:
1. Appleby, R. and R. N. Anderton, "Millimeter-wave and submilimeter-wave imaging for security surveillance," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 95, No. 2, 1683-1690, 2007.

2. Oka, S., H. Togo, N. Kukutsu, and T. Nagatsuma, "Latest trends in millimeter-wave imaging technology," Progress In Electromagnetic Research Letters, Vol. 1, 197-204, 2008.

3. Kemp, M. C., A. Glauser, and C. Baker, "Recent developments in people screening using terahertz technology --- Seeing the world through terahertz eyes," Proc. SPIE, Vol. 6212, 27-34, 2006.

4. Appleby, R. and H. B. Wallace, "Standoff detection of weapons and contraband in the 100 GHz to 1 THz region," IEEE Trans. on Ant. and Prop., Vol. 55, No. 11, 2944-2956, 2007.

5. Federici, J. F., B. Schulkin, F. Huang, G. Dale, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications --- Explosives, weapons and drugs," Semiconductor Sci. Tecnol., Vol. 20, No. 7, S266-S280, 2005.

6. Sheen, D., D. McMakin, and T. E. Hall, "Three-dimensional millimeter-wave imaging for concealed weapon detection," IEEE Trans. MTT, Vol. 49, No. 9, 1581-1592, 2001.

7. Volkov, L. V., A. I. Voronko, N. L. Volkova, and A. R. Karapetyan, "Active MMW imaging technique for contraband detection," 33rd European Microwave Conference, 531-534, 2003.

8. Clark, S. E., J. A. Lovberg, C. A. Martin, and V. Kolinko, "Passive millimeter-wave imaging for airborne and security applications," Proc. SPIE, Vol. 5077, 16-21, 2003.

9. Goldsmith, P. F., C. T. Hsieh, G. R. Huguenin, J. Kapitzky, and E. L. Moore, "Focal plane imaging systems for millimetre wavelengths," IEEE Trans. MTT, Vol. 41, No. 10, 1664-1675, 1993.

10. Zouaoui, R., R. Czarny, F. Diaz, A. Khy, and T. Lamarque, "Multi-sensor millimeter-wave system for hidden objects detection by collaborative screening," Proc. SPIE, Vol. 8022, 802209, 2011.

11. Sheen, D. M., T. E. Hall, R. H. Severtsen, D. L. McMakin, B. K. Hatchell, and P. L. J. Valdez, "Standoff concealed weapon detection using a 350-GHz radar imaging system," Proc. SPIE, Vol. 7670, 767008, 2010.

12. Sheen, D. M., D. L. McMakin, W. M. Lechelt, and J. W. Griffin, "Circularly polarized millimeter-wave imaging for personnel screening," Proc. SPIE, Vol. 5789, 117-126, 2005.

13. Sheen, D. M., D. L. McMakin, T. E. Hall, and R. H. Severtsen, "Active millimeter-wave standoff and portal imaging techniques for personnel screening," IEEE Conference on Technologies for Homeland Security, 440-447, 2009.

14. Harmer, S. W., D. A. Andrews, N. D. Rezgui, and N. J. Bowring, "Detection of handguns by their complex natural resonant frequencies," IET Microw. Antennas Propag., Vol. 4, No. 9, 1182-1190, 2010.

15. Hausner, J. and N. West, "Radar based concealed threat detector," IEEE MTT-S Int. Microwave Symp., 765-768, 2007.

16. Harmer, S., D. Andrews, N. Bowring, N. Rezgui, and M. Southgate, "Ultra wide band detection of on body concealed weapons using the out of plane polarized late time response," Proc. SPIE, Vol. 7485, 748505, 2009.

37. Rezgui, N., D. Andrews, N. Bowring, S. Harmer, and M. Southgate, "Standoff detection of concealed handguns," Proc. SPIE, Vol. 6948, 69480L, 2008.

18. Andrews, D. A., S. E. Smith, N. Rezgui, N. J. Bowring, M. Southgate, and S. W. Harmer, "A swept millimetre-wave technique for the detection of concealed weapons and thin layers of dielectric material with or without fragmentation," Proc. SPIE, Vol. 7309, 73090H, 2009.

19. Andrews, D. A., N. Rezgui, S. E. Smith, N. J. Bowring, M. Southgate, and J. G. Baker, "Detection of concealed explosives at stand-o® distances using wide band swept millimetre wave," Proc. SPIE, Vol. 711, 711719, 2008.

20. Andrews, D. A., N. J. Bowring, M. Southgate, E. Guest, S. W. Harmer, and A. Atiah, "A multifaceted active swept millimetre-wave approach to the detection of concealed weapons," Proc. SPIE, Vol. 7117, 711706, 2008.

21. Bowring, N. J., J. G. Baker, N. Rezgui, M. Southgate, and J. F. Alder, "Active millimetre wave detection of concealed layesr of dielectric material," Proc. SPIE, Vol. 6540, 65401M, 2007.

22. Yong, L., Y. T. Gui, N. Bowring, and N. Rezgui, "A microwave measurement system for metallic object detection using swept frequency radar," Proc. SPIE, Vol. 7117, 71170K, 2008.

23. Novak, D., R. Waterhouse, and A. Farnham, "Millimeter-wave weapons detection system," 34th Applied Imagery and Pattern Recognition Workshop, AIPR'05, 15-20, 2005.

24. Ibrahim, A. S., K. J. Ray Liu, D. Novak, and R. B. Waterhouse, "A subspace signal processing technique for concealed weapons detection," Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, Vol. 2, 401-404, 2007.

25. Baum, C. E., "On the singularity expansion method for the solution of electromagnetic interaction problems,", Air Force Weapons Lab., Interaction Notes, Note 88, 1971.

26. Wang, Y. and N. Shuley, "Complex resonant frequencies for the identification of simple objects in free space and lossy environments," Progress In Electromagnetic Research, Vol. 27, 1-18, 2000.

27. Wang, Y., I. D. Longstaff, and C. J. Leat, "Measurement of complex natural resonances of targets in free space and lossy media," Progress In Electromagnetic Research, Vol. 29, 221-230, 2000.

28. Berni, A. J., "Target identification by natural resonant estimation," IEEE Trans. Aerospace Electron. Syst., Vol. 11, No. 2, 147-154, 1975.

29. Lee, J. H. and H. T. Kim, "Radar target discrimination using transient response reconstruction," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Application, Vol. 19, No. 5, 655-669, 2005.

30. Toribio, R., J. Saillard, and P. Pouliguen, "Identification of radar targets in resonance zone: E-pulse techniques," Progress In Electromagnetic Research 43, 39-58, 2003.

31. Baum, C. E., "The singularity expansion method: Background and developments," IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society Newsletter, 1986.

32. Wang, Y., I. D. Longstaff, C. J. Leat, and N. V. Shuley, "Complex natural resonances of conducting planar objects buried in a dielectric half-space," IEEE Trans. Geoscience Remote Sensing, Vol. 39, No. 6, 1183-1189, 2001.

33. Lui, H. and N. V. Shuley, "Radar target identification using a banded E-pulse technique," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 54, No. 12, 3874-3881, 2006.

34. Chauveau, J., N. de Beaucoudrey, and J. Saillard, "Characteri zation of perfectly conducting targets in resonance domain with their quality of resonance," Progress In Electromagnetic Research, Vol. 74, 69-84, 2007.

35. Robinson, L. A., W. B. Weir, and L. Young, "An RF time-domain reflectometer not in real time," GMTT International Microwave Symposium Digest, Vol. 72, No. 1, 30-32, 1972.

36. Hua, Y. and T. K. Sarkar, "Generalized pencil-of-function method for extracting poles of an EM system from its transient response," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 37, No. 2, 229-234, 1989.

37. Goswami, J. C. and A. E. Hoefel, "Algorithms for estimating instantaneous frequency," Signal Processing, Vol. 84, No. 8, 1423-1427, 2004.

38. Hua, Y. and T. K. Sarkar, "A discussion of E-pulse method and Prony's method for radar resonance retrieval from scattered field," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 37, No. 7, 944-946, 1989.

39. Sarkar, T. K. and O. Pereira, "Using the matrix pencil method to estimate the parameters of a sum of complex exponentials," IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, Vol. 37, No. 1, 48-55, 1995.

40. Lee, J. H. and H. T. Kim, "Natural frequency extraction using generalized pencil-of-function method and transient response reconstruction," Progress In Electromagnetic Research C, Vol. 4, 65-84, 2008.

41. Kitamura, M., J. Takada, and K. Araki, "A model order estimation in the matrix pencil method for the transient response of a microwave circuit discontinuity," IEICE Trans. Electron., Vol. E82-C, No. 11, 2081-2086, 1999.

42. Fenn, A. J., D. H. Temme, W. P. Delaney, and W. E. Courtney, "The development of phased-array RADAR technology," Lincoln Laboratory Journal, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2000.

43. Lestari, A. A., A. G. Yarovoy, and L. P. Ligthart, "RC-loaded bow-tie antenna for improved pulse radiation," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 52, No. 10, 2555-2563, 2004.

44. Kaatze, U., "Complex permittivity of water as a function of frequency and temperature," J. Chem. Eng. Data, Vol. 34, No. 4, 371-374, 1989.

45. Leahy, R. M. and B. D. Jeffs, "On the design of maximally sparse beamforming arrays," IEEE TR. Anten. Prop., Vol. 39, 1178-1187, 1991.


© Copyright 2014 EMW Publishing. All Rights Reserved