PIER
 
Progress In Electromagnetics Research
ISSN: 1070-4698, E-ISSN: 1559-8985
Home | Search | Notification | Authors | Submission | PIERS Home | EM Academy
Home > Vol. 128 > pp. 519-537

MODIFIED CYLINDRICAL HOLOGRAPHIC ALGORITHM FOR THREE-DIMENSIONAL MILLIMETER-WAVE IMAGING

By B. Ren, S. Li, H.-J. Sun, W. Hu, and X. Lv

Full Article PDF (635 KB)

Abstract:
Millimeter-wave (MMW) imaging techniques have been developed for the detection of concealed weapons and plastic explosives carried on personnel at major transportation hubs and secure locations. The combination of frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) technology and MMW imaging techniques leads to wideband, compact, and cost-effective systems which are especially suitable for security detection. Cylindrical three-dimensional (3-D) imaging technique, with the ability of viewing multiple sides, is an extension of rectilinear 3-D imaging technique only viewing a single side. Due to the relatively long signal sweep time, the conventional stop-and-go approximation of the pulsed systems is not suitable for FMCW systems. Therefore, a 3-D backscattered signal model including the effects of the continuous motion within the signal duration time is developed for cylindrical imaging systems. Then, a modified cylindrical holographic algorithm, with motion compensation, is presented and demonstrated by means of numerical simulations.

Citation:
B. Ren, S. Li, H.-J. Sun, W. Hu, and X. Lv, "Modified cylindrical holographic algorithm for three-dimensional millimeter-wave imaging," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 128, 519-537, 2012.
doi:10.2528/PIER12041619
http://www.jpier.org/PIER/pier.php?paper=12041619

References:
1. Currie, N. C., F. J. Demma, D. D. Ferris, Jr., R. W. McMillian, and M. C. Wicks, "ARPA/NIJ/Rome Laboratory concealed weapon detection program: An overview," Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 2755, 492-502, Orlando, Florida, USA, Apr. 1996.
doi:10.1117/12.243190

2. Cooper, K. B., et al., "Penetrating 3-D imaging at 4- and 25-m range using a submillimeter-wave radar," IEEE Trans. on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 56, No. 12, 2771-2778, Dec. 2008.
doi:10.1109/TMTT.2008.2007081

3. Sheen, D. M., D. L. McMakin, and T. E. Hal, "Three-dimensional millimeter-wave imaging for concealed weapon detection," IEEE Trans. on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 49, No. 9, 1581-1592, Sep. 2001.
doi:10.1109/22.942570

4. Appleby, R. and R. N. Anderton, "Millimeter-wave and submillimeter-wave imaging for security and surveillance," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 95, No. 8, 1683-1690, Aug. 2007.
doi:10.1109/JPROC.2007.898832

5. Yeom, S., D. Lee, H. Lee, J. Son, and V. P. Gushin, "Distance estimation of concealed objects with stereoscopic passive millimeter-wave imaging," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 115, 399-407, 2011.

6. Huang, Y., P. V. Brennan, D. Patrick, I. Weller, P. Roberts, and K. Hughes, "FMCW based MIMO imaging radar for maritime navigation," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 115, 327-342, 2011.

7. Meta, A., P. Hoogeboom, and L. P. Ligthart, "Signal processing for FMCW SAR," IEEE Trans. on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 45, No. 11, 3519-3532, Nov. 2007.
doi:10.1109/TGRS.2007.906140

8. Wang, R., O. Loffeld, H. Nies, S. Knedlik, M. Hagelen, and H. Essen, "Focus FMCW SAR data using the wavenumber domain algorithm," IEEE Trans. on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 48, No. 4, 2109-2118, Apr. 2010.
doi:10.1109/TGRS.2009.2034368

9. Lee, M. S., "Signal modeling and analysis of a planar phased-array FMCW radar with antenna switching," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 10, 179-182, 2011.

10. Mittermayer, J., A. Moreira, and O. Loffeld, "Spotlight SAR data processing using the frequency scaling algorithm," IEEE Trans on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 37, No. 5, 2198-2214, Sep. 1999.
doi:10.1109/36.789617

11. De Wit, J. J. M., A. Meta, and P. Hoogeboom, "Modified range-doppler processing for FM-CW synthetic aperture radar," IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, Vol. 3, No. 1, 83-87, Jul. 2006.
doi:10.1109/LGRS.2005.856700

12. Jiang, Z. H., K. Huang-Fu, and J. W. Wan, "A chirp transform algorithm for processing squint mode FMCW SAR data," IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, Vol. 4, No. 3, 377-381, Jul. 2007.
doi:10.1109/LGRS.2007.895689

13. Sheen, D. M., H. D. Collins, T. E. Hall, D. L. McMakin,R. P. Gribble, R. H. Severtsen, J. M. Prince, and L. D. Reid, "Real-time wideband holographic surveillance system,", US Patent 5557283, Sep. 17, 1996.

14. Sheen, D. M., D. L. McMakin, T. E. Hall, and R. H. Severtsen, "Real-time wideband cylindrical holographic surveillance system,", US Patent 5859609, Jan. 12, 1999.

15. Sheen, D. M., D. L. McMakin, H. D. Collins, T. E. Hall, and R. H. Severtsen, "Concealed explosive detection on personnel using a wideband holographic millimeter-wave imaging system," Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 2755, 503-513, 1996.
doi:10.1117/12.243191

16. Sheen, D., D. McMakin, and T. Hall, "Near-field three-dimensional radar imaging techniques and applications," Applied Optics, Vol. 49, E83-E93, Jun. 2010.
doi:10.1364/AO.49.000E83

17. Tan, W., W. Hong, Y. Wang, and Y. Wu, "A novel spherical-wave three-dimensional imaging algorithm for microwave cylindrical scanning geometries," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 111, 43-70, 2011.
doi:10.2528/PIER10100307

18. Soumekh, M., "Reconnaissance with slant plane circular SAR imaging," IEEE Trans. on Image Process, Vol. 5, 1252-1265, 1996.
doi:10.1109/83.506760

19. Soumekh, M., Synthetic Aperture Radar Signal Processing with MATLAB Algorithm, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1999.

20. Guo, D., H. Xu, and J. Li, "Extended wavenumber domain algorithm for highly squinted sliding spotlight SAR data processing," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 114, 17-32, 2011.

21. Fortuny, J. and J. M. L'opez-S'anchez, "Extension of the 3-D range migration algorithm to cylindrical and spherical scanning geometries," IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 49, 1434-1444, 2001.
doi:10.1109/8.954932

22. Carrara, W. G., R. S. Goodman, and R. M. Majewski, Spotlight Synthetic Aperture Radar Signal Processing Algorithms, Artech House, Boston, MA, 1995.

23. Franceschetti, G. and R. Lanari, Synthetic Aperture Radar Processing, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1999.

24. Cumming, I. G. and F. H. Wong, Digital Processing of Synthetic Aperture Radar Data Algorithms and Implementation, Artech House, Norwood, MA, 2005.

25. Li, S., B. Ren, H.-J. Sun, W. D. Hu, and X. Lv, "Modified wavenumber domain algorithm for three-dimensional millimeter-wave imaging," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 124, 35-53, 2012.
doi:10.2528/PIER11112406


© Copyright 2014 EMW Publishing. All Rights Reserved