We report on the design, simulation and characterization of a solid-state W-band in-phase power-combined frequency tripler. In order to increase the output power of the frequency tripler without sacrificing efficiency and bandwidth, two mirror-image tripler circuits with four UMS® Schottky varistor diode chips are designed and mounted in a waveguide block, which includes a compact double-probe power divider at the input waveguide and a Y-junction power combiner at the output waveguide, respectively. Each circuit chip features four anodes on a 50 mil thick Rogers RT/duroid 5880 substrate. The tripler has 1.2~3.8 % conversion efficiency measured across the 75~110 GHz band when driven with 24 dBm of input power at room temperature. With the input power of 27 dBm, 5.5~11 dBm of saturated output power is produced over 75~110 GHz. Suppression of undesired harmonics is greater than 17 dB.
2. Vahdati, H. and A. Abdipour, "Nonlinear stability analysis of microwave oscillators using the periodic averaging method," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 79, 179-193, 2008.
3. Zhang, H., J. Wang, and C. Tong, "Progress in theoretical design and numerical simulation of high power terahertz backward wave oscillator," PIERS Online, Vol. 4, No. 3, 311-315, 2008.
4. Zhao, M., Y. Fan, D. Wu, and J. Zhan, "The investigation of W-band microstrip integrated high order frequency multiplier based on the nonlinear model of avalanche diode," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 85, 439-453, 2008.
5. Mehdi, I., J. Ward, A. Maestrini, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, B. Thomas, R. Lin, C. Lee, and J. Gill, "Broadband sources in the 1-3 THz range," 34th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves, 1-2, Sept. 21-25, 2009.
6. Maiwald, F., E. Schlecht, J. Ward, R. Lin, R. Leon, J. Pearson, and I. Mehdi, "Design and operational considerations for robust planar GaAs varactors: A reliability study," Proc. 14th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology, 488-491, Tucson, AZ, Apr. 22-24, 2003.
7. Maestrini, A., J. Ward, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, and I. Mehdi, "Terahertz sources based on frequency multiplication and their applications," Journal of RF-Engineering and Telecommunications, Vol. 62, 118-122, May 2008.
8. Lee, C., J. Ward, R. Lin, E. Schlecht, G. Chattopadhyay, J. Gill, B. Thomas, A. Maestrini, I. Mehdi, and P. Siegel, "Diamond heat-spreaders for submillimeter-wave GaAs Schottky diode frequency multipliers," Proc. 20th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology, 43-46, Charlottesville, Apr. 20-22, 2009.
9. Maestrini, A., J. S. Ward, J. Gill, H. S. Javadi, E. Schlecht, J. Ward, C. T. Canseliet, G. Chattopadhyay, and I. Mehdi, "A 540-640-GHz high-efficiency four-anode frequency tripler," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 53, No. 9, 2835-2843, Sept. 2005.
10. Siles, J. V. and J. Grajal, "Capabilities of GaN schottky multipliers for lo power generation at millimeter-wave bands," Proc. 19th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology, 504-507, Tucson, Groningen, Apr. 28-30, 2008.
11. Schumann, B., M. Hoft, and R. Judaschke, "A multi-element 150/300 GHz spatial power dividing/combining frequency doubler," 2002 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest, 1539-1542, Jun. 2002.
12. Schumann, B., M. Hoft, M. Saglam, H. L. Hartnagel, and R. Judaschke, "A 5 element 450 GHz HBV frequency tripler," 2003 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest, 759-762, Jun. 2003.
13. Judaschke, R., M. Hoft, and K. Schunemann, "Quasi-optical 150 GHz power combining oscillator," IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, 300-302, May 2005.
14. Maestrini, A., C. Tripon-Canseliet, J. S. Ward, J. Gill, and I. Mehdi, "A 260-340 GHz dual chip frequency tripler for THz frequency multiplier chains," Joint 31st International Conference on Infrared Millimeter Waves and 14th International Conference on Terahertz Electronics, 336, Sept. 2006.
15. Maestrini, A., J. S. Ward, C. T. Canseliet, J. Gill, C. Lee, H. Javadi, G. Chattopadhyay, and I. Mehdi, "In-phase powr-combined frequency tripler at 300 GHz," IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, Vol. 18, No. 3, 218-220, Mar. 2008.
16. Kirby, P. L., Y. Li, Q. Xiao, J. L. Hesler, and J. Papapolymerou, "Power combining multiplier using HBV diodes at 260 GHz," Proc. Asia Pacific Microwave Conference, 1-4, 2008.
17. Siles, J. V., A. Maestrini, B. Alderman, S. Davies, H. Wang, J. Treuttel, E. Leclerc, T. Narhi, and C. Goldstein, "A single-waveguide in-phase power-combined frequency doubler at 190 GHz," IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, Vol. 21, No. 6, 332-334, Jun. 2011.
18. Marsh, S., B. Alderman, D. Matheson, and P. de Maagt, "Design of low-cost 183 GHz subharmonic mixers for commercial applications," IET Circuits Devices Syst., Vol. 1, No. 1, 1-6, 2007.
19. Tuovinen, J. and N. R. Ericson, "Analysis of a 170 GHz frequency doubler with an array of planar diodes," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 43, No. 4, 962-968, Apr. 1995.
20. Porterfield, D., "High-efficiency terahertz frequency triplers," IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest, 337-340, Honolulu, HI, Jun. 3-8, 2007.
21. Chen, Z. H. and J. P. Xu, "Analysis of power null for millimeter wave broadband frequency multiplying applications," 2012 5th Global Symposium on Millimeter Waves (GSMM), 286-290, May 2012.
22. Maestrini, A., J. S.Ward, J. J. Gill, C. Lee, B. Thomas, R. H. Lin, G. Chattopadhyay, and I. Mehdi, "A frequency-multiplied source with more than 1mW of power across the 840-900-GHz band," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 58, No. 7, 1925-1932, Jun. 2010.
23. Morgan, M. and S. Weinreb, "A full waveguide band MMIC tripler for 75-110 GHz," IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest, 103-106, Phoenix, AZ, 2001.
24. Wang, H., "Design and modeling of monolithic circuits Schottky diode on a GaAs substrate at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths heterodyne receivers for multi-pixel and on board satellites dedicated to planetary aeronomy," , Ph.D. Dissertation, University of P&M Curie, Paris 6, 2009.