PIER
 
Progress In Electromagnetics Research
ISSN: 1070-4698, E-ISSN: 1559-8985
Home | Search | Notification | Authors | Submission | PIERS Home | EM Academy
Home > Vol. 134 > pp. 509-524

LUMINESCENCE ENHANCEMENT OF OLED PERFORMANCE BY DOPING COLLOIDAL MAGNETIC FE3O4 NANOPARTICLES

By M. Kus, F. Ozel, N. M. Varal, and M. Ersoz

Full Article PDF (946 KB)

Abstract:
We report synthesis of magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (MNPs) based on two phase method and their application in organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) as blend with emissive Polyfluorene (PFO) matrix. Two phase method allows to successively synthesizing oleic acid capped MPNs with 5-10 nm particle size. Colloidal MNPs can be easily mixed with emissive polymer solutions to obtain a blend for OLED application. The electroluminescence efficiency increases by doping with MNPs into emissive layer. Different dopant concentrations varied from 0.4% to 2% were monitored. It was observed that the electroluminescence increases up to 1% v/v doping ratio. The luminance of OLEDs increased from 15.000 cd/m² to 24.000 cd/m² in comparison pristine device with 1% MNP doped device.

Citation:
M. Kus, F. Ozel, N. M. Varal, and M. Ersoz, "Luminescence Enhancement of Oled Performance by Doping Colloidal Magnetic FE3O4 Nanoparticles," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 134, 509-524, 2013.
doi:10.2528/PIER12103106
http://www.jpier.org/PIER/pier.php?paper=12103106

References:
1. Li, , Y., , A. Rizzo, R. Cingolani, and G. Gigli, "Bright white-light-emitting device from ternary nanocrystal composites," Advanced Materials,, Vol. 18, No. 19, 2545-2548, 2006.
doi:10.1002/adma.200600181

2. Haque, S., , S. Koops, N. Tokmoldin, J. Durrant, J. Huang, D. Bradley, and E. Palomares, "A multilayered polymer light-emitting diode using a nanocrystalline metal-oxide film as a charge-injection electrode," Advanced Materials, Vol. 19, No. 5, 683-687, 2007.
doi:10.1002/adma.200601619

3. Taberna, P. L., , S. Mitra, P. Poizot, P. Simon, and J.-M. Tarascon, "High rate capabilities Fe3O4-based Cu nano-architectured electrodes for lithium-ion battery applications," Nat. Mater., Vol. 5, 567-573, 2006.
doi:10.1038/nmat1672

4. Xu, , Z., , C. Shen, Y. Hou, H. Gao, and S. Sun, "Oleylamine as both reducing agent and stabilizer in a facile synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles," Chemistry of Materials, Vol. 21, 1778-1780, 2009.
doi:10.1021/cm802978z

5. Zeng, , H. and S. Sun, "Syntheses, properties, and potential applications of multicomponent magnetic nanoparticles," Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 18, No. 3, 391-400, 2008.
doi:10.1002/adfm.200701211

6. Shi, , R., , X. Liu, G. Gao, R. Yi, and G. Qiu, "Large-scale synthesis and characterization of monodisperse Fe3O4 nanocrystals," Journal of Alloys and Compounds,, Vol. 485, 548-553, 2009.
doi:10.1016/j.jallcom.2009.06.024

7. Zhang, , L., , R. He, and H.-C. Gu, "Oleic acid coating on the monodisperse magnetite nanoparticles," Applied Surface Science,, Vol. 253, 2611-2617, 2006.
doi:10.1016/j.apsusc.2006.05.023

8. Bronstein, , L. M., , X. Huang, J. Retrum, A. Schmucker, M. Pink, B. D. Stein, and B. Dragnea, "Influence of iron oleate complex structure on iron oxide nanoparticle formation," Chemistry of Materials,, Vol. 19, No. 15, 3624-3632, 2007.
doi:10.1021/cm062948j

9. Sun, J., , S. Zhou, P. Hou, Y. Yang, J. Weng, X. Li, and M. Li, "Synthesis and characterization of biocompatible Fe3O4 nanoparticles," Journal of Biomedical Materials Research A,, Vol. 80, No. 2, 333-341, 2007.
doi:10.1002/jbm.a.30909

10. Mai Hoa , , L. T., , T. T. Dung, T. M. Danh, N. H. Duc, and D. M. Chien, "Preparation and characterization of magnetic nanoparticles coated with polyethylene glycol ," Journal of Physics: Conference Series,, Vol. 187, 12048, 2009.

11. Xuan, , S., , L. Hao, W. Jiang, X. Gong, Y. Hu, and Z. Chen, "Preparation of water-soluble magnetite nanocrystals through hydrothermal approach," Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, Vol. Material, 210-213, 2007.
doi:10.1016/j.jmmm.2006.05.017

12. Lartigue, L., , K. Oumzil, Y. Guari, J. Larionova, C. Guerin, J.-L. Montero, V. Barragan-Montero, C. Sangregorio, A. Caneschi, C. Innocenti, and T., "Water- soluble rhamnose-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles," Organic Letters,, Vol. 11, No. 14, 2992-2995, 2009.
doi:10.1021/ol900949y

13. Pan, , D., , S. Jiang, L. An, and B. Jiang, "Controllable synthesis of highly luminescent and monodisperse CdS nanocrystals by a two-phase approach under mild conditions ," Advanced Materials,, Vol. 16, No. 12, 982-985, 2004.
doi:10.1002/adma.200400010

14. Dallas, , P., , A. Bourlinos, D. Niarchos, and D. Petridis, "Synthesis of tunable sized capped magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles highly soluble in organic solvents," Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 42, 4996-5002, 2007.
doi:10.1007/s10853-006-0610-x

15. Hui, , C., , C. Shen, T. Yang, L. Bao, J. Tian, H. Ding, C. Li, and H.-J. Gao, "Large-scale Fe3O4 nanoparticles soluble in water synthesized by a facile method ," The Journal of Physical Chemistry C,, Vol. Chemistr, 11336-11339, 2008.
doi:10.1021/jp801632p

16. Kalinowski, , J., M. Cocchi, D. Virgili, P. Di Marco, and V. Fattori, "Magnetic field effects on emission and current in Alq3-based Magnetic ¯eld e®ects on emission and current in Alq3-based," Chemical Physics Letters,, Vol. 380, No. 5, 710-715, 2003.
doi:10.1016/j.cplett.2003.09.086

17. Gomez, J. A., , F. NÄuesch, L. Zuppiroli, and C. F. O. Grae®, "Magnetic field effects on the conductivity of organic bipolar and unipolar devices at room temperature," Synthetic Metals, Vol. 160, No. 3--4, 317-319, 2010.
doi:10.1016/j.synthmet.2009.11.020

18. Nguyen, T. D., , Y. Sheng, J. Rybicki, G. Veeraraghavan, and M. Wohlgenannt, "Magnetoresistance in pi-conjugated organic sandwich devices with varying hyperfie and spin-orbit coupling strengths, and varying dopant concentrations," Journal of Materials Chemistry, Vol. 17, 1995-2001, 2007.
doi:10.1039/b617541d

19. Ding, , B. F., Y. Yao, Z. Y. Sun, C. Q. Wu, X. D. Gao, Z. J. Wang, X. M. Ding, W. C. H. Choy, and X. Y. Hou, "Magnetic field effects on the electroluminescence of organic light emitting devices: A tool to indicate the carrier mobility," Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 97, 163302-163304, 2010.
doi:10.1063/1.3505343

20. Shimada, T., Organic Light Emitting Diode --- Material, Process, and Devices, 311-322, InTech, , 2011.

21. Ohmori, Y., , H. Kajii, T. Sawatani, H. Ueta, and K. Yoshino, "Enhancement of electroluminescence utilizing confined energy transfer for red light emission Autore," Thin Solid Films, Vol. 393, 407-411, 2001.
doi:10.1016/S0040-6090(01)01128-2

22. Zhang, , D.-D., , J. Feng, Y.-F. Liu, Y.-Q. Zhong, Y. Bai, Y. Jin, G.-H. Xie, Q. Xue, Y. Zhao, S.-Y. Liu, and H.-B. Sun, "Enhanced hole injection in organic light-emitting devices by using Fe3O4 as an anodic buffer layer," Applied Physics Letters,, Vol. 94, 223303-223306, 2009.

23. Scherf, , U. , E. J. W. List, and , "Semiconducting polyfluorenes- towards reliable structureCproperty relationships," Advanced Materials,, Vol. 14, No. 7, 477-487, 2002.
doi:10.1002/1521-4095(20020404)14:7<477::AID-ADMA477>3.0.CO;2-9

24. Neher, , D., , "Polyfluorene homopolymers: Conjugated liquid-crystalline polymers for bright blue emission and polarized electroluminescence," Macromolecular Rapid Communications, Vol. 22, No. 17, 1365-1385, 2001.
doi:10.1002/1521-3927(20011101)22:17<1365::AID-MARC1365>3.0.CO;2-B

25. Yu, , W.-L., , J. Pei, W. Huang, and A. J. Heeger, "Spiro-functionalized polyfluorene derivatives as blue light-emitting materials," Advanced Materials,, Vol. 12, No. 11, 828-831, 2000.
doi:10.1002/(SICI)1521-4095(200006)12:11<828::AID-ADMA828>3.0.CO;2-H

26. Grell, , M., , D. D. C. Bradley, M. Inbasekaran, and E. P. Woo, "A glass-forming conjugated main-chain liquid crystal polymer for polarized electroluminescence applications," Advanced Materials, Vol. 9, No. 10, 798-802, 1997.
doi:10.1002/adma.19970091006

27. Pei, , Q. and Y. Yang, "Effcient photoluminescence and electroluminescence from a soluble polyfluorene," Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 118, 7416-7417, 1996.
doi:10.1021/ja9615233

28. Rathnayake, , H., , A. Cirpan, Z. Delen, P. Lahti, and F. Karasz, "Optimizing OLED e±cacy of 2,7-diconjugated 9,9- dialkyl°uorenes by variation of periphery substitution and conjugation length," Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 17, 115-122, 2007.
doi:10.1002/adfm.200600089

29. Craig, , M. R., , M. M. de Kok, J. W. Hofstraat, A. P. H. J. Schenning, and E. W. Meijer, "Improving color purity and stability in a blue emitting poly°uorene by monomer purification," Journal of Materials Chemistry,, Vol. 13, 2861-2862, 2003.
doi:10.1039/b308402g

30. Jenekhe, , S. A. , J. A. Osaheni, and , "Excimers and exciplexes of conjugated polymers," Science,, Vol. 265, 765-768, 1994.
doi:10.1126/science.265.5173.765

31. Gong, , X., , P. K. Iyer, D. Moses, G. C. Bazan, A. J. Heeger, and S. S. Xiao, "Stabilized blue emission from polyfluorene based light-emitting diodes: Elimination of fluorenone defects," Advanced Functional Materials, , Vol. 13, 325-330, 2003.
doi:10.1002/adfm.200304279

32. Becker, K., , J. Lupton, J. Feldmann, B. Nehls, F. Galbrecht, D. Gao, and U. Scherf, "On-chain fluorenone defect emission from single poly°uorene molecules in the absence of intermolecular interactions," Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 16, 364-370, 2006..
doi:10.1002/adfm.200500550

33. Niedermeir, , U., "Magnetic field effect in organic light emitting diodes," Ph.D. Thesis, Technishe Universitat Darmstadt, 2010.

34. Francis, , T. L., , O. Mermer, G. Veeraraghavan, and M. Wohlgenannt, "Large magnetoresistance at room temperature in semiconducting polymer sandwich devices," New Journal of Physics, Vol. 6, 185, 2004.
doi:10.1088/1367-2630/6/1/185

35. Itskos, , G., , E. Harbord, S. K. Clowes, E. Clarke, L. F. Cohen, R. Murray, P. Van Dorpe, and W. Van Roy, "Oblique Hanle measurements of InAs/GaAs quantum dot spin-light emitting diodes," Applied Physics Letters,, Vol. 88, 22113-22114, 2006.
doi:10.1063/1.2163074

36. Sun, , C.-J., Y. Wu, Z. Xu, B. Hu, J. Bai, J.-P. Wang, and J. Shen, "Enhancement of quantum e±ciency of organic light emitting devices by doping magnetic nanoparticles ," Applied Physics Letters,, Vol. 90, 232110-232113, 2007.
doi:10.1063/1.2746415

37. Kumar, , P., , H. Kumar, S. Chand, S. C. Jain, V. Kumar, V. Kumar, R. P. Pant, and R. P. Tandon, "Effect of CoFe magnetic nanoparticles on the hole transport in poly (2-methoxy, 5-(2-ethylhexiloxy) 1,4-phenylenevin," Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol. 41, 185104, 2008.
doi:10.1088/0022-3727/41/18/185104

38. Zhang, , W., Y. Xu, H. Wang, C. Xu, and S. Yang, "Fe3O4 nanoparticles induced magnetic field effect on effciency enhancement of P3HT: PCBM bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells," Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Vol. 95, 2880-2885, 2011.
doi:10.1016/j.solmat.2011.06.005

39. Lee, , J., , T. Isobe, and M. Senna, "Preparation of ultrafine Fe3O4 particles by precipitation in the presence of PVA at high pH," Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Vol. 177, 490-494, 1996.
doi:10.1006/jcis.1996.0062

40. Zhou, , Z. H., , J. Wang, X. Liu, and H. S. O. Chan, "Synthesis of Fe3O4 nanoparticles from emulsions," Journal of Materials Chemistry, Vol. Chemistr, 1704-1709, 2001.
doi:10.1039/b100758k

41. Si, S., , A. Kotal, T. K. Mandal, S. Giri, H. Nakamura, and T. Kohara, "Size-controlled synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles in the presence of polyelectrolytes," Chemistry of Materials,, Vol. 16, 3489-3496, 2004.
doi:10.1021/cm049205n

42. Scherrer, , P., , "Gottinger Nachrichten," Gesell,, Vol. 2, , 98, , 1918.

43. Koseoglu, , Y., , "Effect of surfactant coating on magnetic properties of Fe3O4 nanoparticles: ESR study," Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, Vol. 300, e327-e330, 2006.
doi:10.1016/j.jmmm.2005.10.112

44. Leo, , G., , Y. Chushkin, S. Luby, E. Majkova, I. Kostic, M. Ulmeanu, A. Luches, M. Giersig, and M. Hilgendorff, "Ordering of free-standing Co nanoparticles," Materials Science and Engineering: C,, Vol. 23, 949-952, 2003.
doi:10.1016/j.msec.2003.09.099

45. Friend, , R. H., , R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. D. Santos, J. L. Bredas, and M. Logdlu, "Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers," Nature,, Vol. 397, 121-128, 1999.
doi:10.1038/16393

46. Chen, , C.-H. and H.-F. Meng, "Enhancement of singlet exciton formation ratio in electroluminescent conjugated polymers by magnetic doping," Physical Review B,, Vol. 68, 1-9, 2003.


© Copyright 2014 EMW Publishing. All Rights Reserved