Radar features from higher order motions of a wind turbine undergoing rotation are studied. Mathematical models for the motions are proposed and used to simulate the joint time-frequency (JTF) and inverse synthetic radar aperture (ISAR) characteristics of the motions. The motions are studied for an isolated turbine as well as for a turbine rotating above a ground. Selected motions are corroborated by laboratory model measurements.
2. The effects of wind turbine farms on ATC radars, Air Warfare Center, Royal Air Force, 2005.
3., "Further evidence of the effects of wind turbine farms on AD radars," Air Warfare Center, Royal Air Force, 2005.
4., "Report to the congressional defense committees on the effect of windmill farms on military readiness," Office of the Director of Defense Research and Engineering, Undersecretary for Space and Sensor Systems, 2006.
5. Lemmon, J. J., J. E. Carroll, F. H. Sanders, and D. Turner, "Assessment of the effects of wind turbines on air traffic control radars," NTIA Technical Report TR-08-454, US Department of Commerce , 2008.
6. Sandifer, J. B., T. Crum, E. Ciardi, and R. Guenther, "A way forward: Wind farm --- Weather radar coexistence," Proc. WINDPOWER 2009, 2009.
7. Belmonte, A. and X. Fabregas, "Analysis of wind turbines blockage on doppler weather radar beams," IEEE Antennas Wireless Propagat. Lett., Vol. 9, 670-673, 2010.
8. Borely, M., "Guidelines on how to assess the potential impact of wind turbines on surveillance sensors," Tech. Rep. EUROCONTROL-GUID-130, EUROCONTROL, 2010.
9. Poupart, G. J., "Wind farms impact on radar aviation interests," Final Report, Department of Trade and Industry, QinetiQ Corp., 2003.
10. Kent, B. M., A. Buterbaugh, K. C. Hill, G. Zelinski, R. Hawley, L. Cravens, T. Van, C. Vogel, and T. Coveyou, "Dynamic radar cross section and radar Doppler measurements of commercial General Electric windmill power turbines Part 1 --- Predicted and measured radar signatures," IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag., Vol. 50, No. 2, 211-219, 2008.
11. Kent, B. M., A. Buterbaugh, K. C. Hill, G. Zelinski, R. Hawley, L. Cravens, T. Van, C. Vogel, and T. Coveyou, "Dynamic radar cross section and radar Doppler measurements of commercial General Electric windmill power turbines Part 2 --- Predicted and measured Doppler signatures," Proc. 2007 AMTA Symposium, 2007.
12. Hill, K. C., G. Zelinski, T. Van, and C. Vogel, "Computational electromagnetics (CEM) prediction of a windmill," 2007 Electromagnetics Code Consortium Annual Meeting, 2007.
13. Isom, B. M., R. D. Palmer, G. S. Secrest, R. D. Rhoton, D. Saxion, T. L. Allmon, J. Reed, T. Crum, and R. Vogt, "Detailed observations of wind turbine clutter with scanning weather radars ," J. Atmosph. Ocean. Tech., Vol. 26, 894-910, 2009.
14. Naqvi, A., S. Yang, and H. Ling, "Investigation of Doppler features from wind turbine scattering," IEEE Antennas Wireless Propagat. Lett., Vol. 9, 485-488, 2010.
15. Greving, G., W. Biermann, and R. Mundt, "Wind turbines as distorting scattering objects for radar-clutter aspects and visibility," Proc. Int. Radar Symp. 2010, 1-4, 2010.
16. Naqvi, A., N. Whitelonis, and H. Ling, "Doppler features from wind turbine scattering in the presence of ground," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 35, 1-10, 2012.
17. Chen, V. C. and Analysis of micro-, "Analysis of microDoppler signatures," IEE Proc. --- Radar Sonar Navig., Vol. 150, No. 4, 271-276, 2003.
18. Thayaparan, T., S. Abrol, E. Riseborough, L. Stankovic, D. Lamothe, and G. Duff, "Analysis of radar micro-Doppler signatures from experimental helicopter and human data," IET Proc. Radar Sonar Navigat., Vol. 1, No. 4, 289-299, 2007.
19. Whitelonis, N., S. Yang, and H. Ling, "Application of near-field to far-field transformation to Doppler features from wind turbine scattering," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 60, No. 3, 1660-1665, 2012.
20. Balanis, C. A., Advanced Engineering Electromagnetics, 314-323, Wiley, New Jersey, 1989.