PIER
 
Progress In Electromagnetics Research
ISSN: 1070-4698, E-ISSN: 1559-8985
Home | Search | Notification | Authors | Submission | PIERS Home | EM Academy
Home > Vol. 144 > pp. 201-219

ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE SCATTERING FROM ROUGH BOUNDARIES INTERFACING INHOMOGENEOUS MEDIA AND APPLICATION TO SNOW-COVERED SEA ICE

By A. S. Komarov, L. Shafai, and D. G. Barber

Full Article PDF (507 KB)

Abstract:
In this study a new analytical formulation for electromagnetic wave scattering from rough boundaries interfacing inhomogeneous media is presented based on the first-order approximation of the small perturbation method. First, we considered a scattering problem for a single rough boundary embedded in a piecewise continuously layered medium. As a key step, we introduced auxiliary wave propagation problems that are aimed to link reflection and transmission coefficients in the layered media with particular solutions of one-dimensional wave equations at the mean level of the rough interface. This approach enabled us to express the final solution in a closed form avoiding a prior discretization of the inhomogeneous medium. Second, we naturally extended the obtained solution to an arbitrary number of rough interfaces separating continuously layered media. As a validation step, we demonstrated that available solutions in the literature represent special cases of our general solution. Furthermore, we showed that our numerical results agree well with published data. Finally, as a particular special case, we presented a formulation for scattering from inhomogeneous snow-covered sea ice when the dominant scattering occurs at the snow-ice and air-snow interfaces.

Citation:
A. S. Komarov, L. Shafai, and D. G. Barber, "Electromagnetic Wave Scattering from Rough Boundaries Interfacing Inhomogeneous Media and Application to Snow-Covered Sea Ice," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 144, 201-219, 2014.
doi:10.2528/PIER13111209
http://www.jpier.org/PIER/pier.php?paper=13111209

References:
1. Comiso, J., C. Parkinson, R. Gersten, and L. Stock, "Accelerated decline in the Arctic sea ice cover," Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 35, L01703, 2008.
doi:10.1029/2007GL031972

2. Kwok, R. and D. Rothrock, "Decline in Arctic sea ice thickness from submarine and ICESat records: 1958–2008," Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 36, L15501, 2009.

3. Kwok, R. and N. Untersteiner, "The thinning of Arctic sea ice," Physics Today, Vol. 64, No. 4, 36-41, 2011.
doi:10.1063/1.3580491

4. Perovich, D. K., B. Light, H. Eicken, K. F. Jones, K. Runciman, and S. V. Nghiem, "Increasing solar heating of the Arctic Ocean and adjacent seas, 1979–2005: Attribution and role in the ice-albedo feedback ," Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 34, L19505, 2007.
doi:DOI:10.1029/2007GL031480

5. Serreze, M. C., M. M. Holland, and J. Stroeve, "Perspectives on the Arctic’s shrinking ice cover," Science, Vol. 315, 1533-1536, 2007.
doi:DOI:10.1126/science.1139426

6. Komarov, A. S. and D. G. Barber, "Sea ice motion tracking from sequential dual-polarization RADARSAT-2 images," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., Vol. 52, No. 1, 121-136, 2014.
doi:10.1109/TGRS.2012.2236845

7. Thomas, M., C. Kambhamettu, and C. Geiger, "Motion tracking of discontinuous sea ice," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., Vol. 49, No. 12, 5064-5079, 2011.
doi:10.1109/TGRS.2011.2158005

8. Isleifson, D., B. Hwang, D. Barber, R. Scharien, and L. Shafai, "C-Band polarimetric backscattering signatures of newly formed sea ice during fall freeze-up," IEEE Trans. on Geosci. Remote Sens., Vol. 48, No. 8, 3256-3267, 2010.
doi:10.1109/TGRS.2010.2043954

9. Moreira, A., P. Prats-Iraola, M. Younis, G. Kreiger, I. Hajnsek, and K. P. Papathanassiou, "A tutorial on synthetic aperture radar," IEEE Geosci. and Rem. Sens. Magazine, Vol. 1, No. 1, 6-43, 2013.
doi:10.1109/MGRS.2013.2248301

10. Ulaby, F. T., R. K. Moore, and A. K. Fung, Microwave Remote Sensing: Active and Passive, Vol. 3, Artech House, Norwood, MA, 1986.

11. Kim, Y. S., R. Onstott, and R. Moore, "Effect of a snow cover on microwave backscatter from sea ice," IEEE J. Ocean. Eng., Vol. 9, No. 5, 383-388, 1984.
doi:10.1109/JOE.1984.1145649

12. Carsey, F. D., Microwave Remote Sensing of Sea Ice, Geophysical Monograph 68, American Geophysical Union, 1992.
doi:10.1029/GM068

13. Ishimaru, A., Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media, Vol. 1, No. 2, Academic, New York, , 1978.

14. Hastings, F. D., J. B. Schneider, and S. L. Broschat, "A Monte-Carlo FDTD technique for rough surface scattering," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 43, No. 11, 1183-1191, 1995.
doi:10.1109/TAP.1995.481168

15. Nassar, E. M., J. T. Johnson, and R. Lee, "A numerical model for electromagnetic scattering from sea ice," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., Vol. 38, No. 3, 1309-1319, 2000.
doi:10.1109/36.843024

16. Isleifson, D., I. Jeffrey, L. Shafai, J. LoVetri, and D. G. Barber, "A Monte Carlo method for simulating scattering from sea ice using FVTD," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens, Vol. 50, No. 7, 2658-2668, 2012.
doi:10.1109/TGRS.2011.2173940

17. Rice, S. O., "Reflection of electromagnetic waves from slightly rough surfaces," Commun. Pure Appl. Math., Vol. 4, No. 2--3, 351-378, 1951.
doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpa.3160040206

18. Yarovoy, A. G., R. V. de Jongh, and L. P. Ligthard, "Scattering properties of a statistically rough interface inside a multilayered medium," Radio Sci., Vol. 35, No. 2, 455-462, 2000.
doi:10.1029/1999RS900083

19. Fuks, I. M., "Wave diffraction by a rough boundary of an arbitrary plane-layered medium," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 49, No. 4, 630-639, 2001.
doi:10.1109/8.923325

20. Franceschetti, G., P. Imperatore, A. Iodice, D. Riccio, and G. Ruello, "Scattering from layered structures with one rough interface: A unified formulation of perturbative solutions," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., Vol. 46, No. 6, 1634-1643, 2008.
doi:10.1109/TGRS.2008.916222

21. Tabatabaeenejad, A. and M. Moghaddam, "Bistatic scattering from dielectric structures with two rough boundaries using the small perturbation method," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., Vol. 44, No. 8, 2006.
doi:10.1109/TGRS.2006.872140

22. Imperatore, P., A. Iodice, and D. Riccio, "Electromagnetic wave scattering from layered structures with an arbitrary number of rough interfaces," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., Vol. 47, No. 4, 1056-1072, 2009.
doi:10.1109/TGRS.2008.2007804

23. Barber, D. G., R. Galley, M. G. Asplin, R. De Abreu, K.-A. Warner, M. Pucko, M. Gupta, S. Prinsenberg, and S. Julien, "Perennial pack ice in the southern Beaufort Sea was not as it appeared in the summer of 2009," Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 36, L24501, 2009.
doi:10.1029/2009GL041434

24. Barber, D. G., "Microwave remote sensing, sea ice and Arctic climate," Phys. Can., Vol. 61, 105-111, 2005.

25. Fung, A. K. and K. S. Chen, Microwave Scattering and Emission Models for Users, Artech House, Boston, MA, 2010.

26. Ulaby, F. T., R. K. Moore, and A. K. Fung, "Microwave Remote Sensing: Active and Passive," Artech House, Vol. 2, 1990.

27. Fung, A. K., "Microwave Scattering and Emission Models and Their Applications," Artech House, 1994.

28. Valenzuela, G. R., "Theories for the interactions of electromagnetic and oceanic waves: A review," Boundary Layer Meteorol., Vol. 13, 61-85, 1978.
doi:10.1007/BF00913863

29. Collin, R. E., Antennas and Radio Wave Propagation, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1985.

30., RADARSAT-2 Product Description RN-SP-52-1238, MacDonald, Dettwiler and Associates Ltd. , Richmond, BC, Canada, 2009.

31. Tsang, L. and J. A. Kong, Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves: Advanced Topics, Wiley Interscience, 2001.
doi:10.1002/0471224278

32. Ulaby, F. T., R. K. Moore, and A. K. Fung, Microwave Remote Sensing: Active and Passive, Vol. 1, Artech House, Norwood, MA, 1986.

33. Stogryn, A. and G. D. Desargant, "The dielectric properties of brine in sea ice at microwave frequencies," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 33, No. 5, 523-532, 1985.
doi:10.1109/TAP.1985.1143610

34. Drinkwater, M. R. and G. B. Crocker, "Modeling changes in the dielectric and scattering properties of young snow covered sea ice at GHz frequencies," J. Glaciology, Vol. 34, No. 118, 274-282, 1988.

35. Hallikainen, M., F. Ulaby, and M. Abdelrazik, "Dielectric properties of snow in the 3 to 37GHz range," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 34, No. 11, 1329-1340, 1986.
doi:10.1109/TAP.1986.1143757

36. Khenchaf, A., "Bistatic reflection of electromagnetic waves from random rough surfaces. Application to the sea and snowy-covered surfaces," Eur. Phys. J. Applied Physics, Vol. 14, 45-62, 2001.
doi:10.1051/epjap:2001138

37. Gloersen, P. and J. K. Larabee, An Optical Model for the Microwave Properties of Sea Ice, NASA TM-83865, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, 1981.

38. Mironov, V. L., M. C. Dobson, V. H. Kaupp, S. A. Komarov, and V. N. Kleshchenko, "Generalized refractive mixing dielectric model for moist soils," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., Vol. 42, No. 4, 773-785, 2004.
doi:10.1109/TGRS.2003.823288

39. Vant, M. R., R. B. Gray, R. O. Ramseier, and V. Makios, "Dielectric properties of fresh and sea ice at 10 and 35 GHz," J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 45, No. 11, 4712-4717, 1974.
doi:10.1063/1.1663123

40. Frankenstein, G. and R. Garner, "Equations for determining the brine volume of sea ice from ---- 0.5 C to −22.9 C," J. Glaciol., Vol. 6, No. 48, 943-944, 1967.

41. Stogryn, A., "Equations for calculating the dielectric constant of saline water," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Thech., Vol. 19, 733-736, 1971.
doi:10.1109/TMTT.1971.1127617

42. Bellman, R. and R. Vasudevan, Wave Propagation — An Invariant Embedding Approach, D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1986.


© Copyright 2014 EMW Publishing. All Rights Reserved