Vol. 01

Front:[PDF file] Back:[PDF file]
Latest Volume
All Volumes
All Issues

Radiative Transfer Theory for Active Remote Sensing of Two-Layer Random Medium

By Robert Tong-Ik Shin and Jin Kong
Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 01, 359-417, 1989
doi:10.2528/PIER88050200

Abstract

Citation


Robert Tong-Ik Shin and Jin Kong, "Radiative Transfer Theory for Active Remote Sensing of Two-Layer Random Medium," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 01, 359-417, 1989.
doi:10.2528/PIER88050200
http://www.jpier.org/PIER/pier.php?paper=880502

References


    1. Rouse, Jr., J. W., "Arctic ice type identification by radar," Proc. IEEE, Vol. 57, 605-611, 1969.
    doi:10.1109/PROC.1969.7015

    2. Johnson, J. D. and L. D. Farmer, "Use of side-looking airborne radar for sea ice identification," J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 76, 2138-2155, 1971.
    doi:10.1029/JC076i009p02138

    3. Edgerton, A. T., A. Stogryn, and G. Poe, "Microwave radiometric investigations of snowpacks," Final Report 1285R-4, Aerojet-General Corp., El Monte, CA, 1971.
    doi:

    4. Meier, M. F., "Application of remote sensing techniques to the study of seasonal snow cover," J. Glaciology, Vol. 15, 251-265, 1975.
    doi:10.1017/S0022143000034419

    5. Gloersen, P., W. Nordberg, T. J. Sbugge, T. T. Wieit, and W. J. Campbell, "Microwave signatures of fist-year and multiyear sea ice," J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 78, 3564-3572, 1973.
    doi:10.1029/JC078i018p03564

    6. Ketchurn, Jr., R. D., S. G. Tooma, and Jr., "Analysis and interpretation of air-borne multifrequency side-looking radar sea ice imagery," J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 3, 520-538, 1973.

    7. Elachi, C., M. L. Bryaand, and W. F. Weeks, "Imaging radar observations of frozen Arctic lakes," Rem. Sens. Environ., Vol. 5, 169-175, 1976.
    doi:10.1016/0034-4257(76)90047-X

    8. Kunzi, K. F., A. D. Fisher, D. H. Staelin, and J. W. Waters, "Snow and ice surfaces measured by the Nimbus-5 microwave spectrometer," J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 81, 4965-4980, 1976.
    doi:10.1029/JC081i027p04965

    9. Parashar, S. K., R. M. Haralick, R. K. Moore, and A. W. Biggs, "Radar scatterometer discrimination of sea-ice types," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron., Vol. 15, 83-87, 1977.
    doi:10.1109/TGE.1977.294480

    10. Ulaby, F. T., W. H. Stiles, L. F. Dellwig, and B. C. Hanson, "Experiments on the radar backscatter of snow," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron., Vol. 15, 185-189, 1977.
    doi:10.1109/TGE.1977.294490

    11. Zwally, H. J., "Microwave emissivity and accumulation rate of polar firn," J. Glaciology, Vol. 18, 195-215, 1977.
    doi:10.1017/S0022143000021304

    12. Hofer, R. and E. Schanda, "Signatures of snow in the 5 to 94 GHz range," Radio Science, Vol. 13, 365-369, 1978.
    doi:10.1029/RS013i002p00365

    13. Shiue, J. C., A. T. C. Chang, H. Boyne, and D. Ellerbruch, "Remote sensing of snowpack with microwave radiometers for hydrologic applications," Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 2, 877-886, Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 1978.

    14. Stiles, W. H. and F. T. Ulaby, "The active and passive microwave response to snow parameters: 1. Wetness," J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 85, 1037-1044, 1980.
    doi:10.1029/JC085iC02p01037

    15. Rango, A., A. T. C. Chang, and J. L. Foster, "The utilization of spaceborne microwave radiometers for monitoring snowpack properties," Nordic Hydrol., Vol. 10, 25-40, 1979.
    doi:10.2166/nh.1979.0003

    16. Ulaby, F. T., "Radar response to vegetation," IEEE Trans. Ant. Prop., Vol. 23, 36-45, 1975.
    doi:10.1109/TAP.1975.1140999

    17. Ulaby, F. T., T. F. Bush, and P. P. Batlivala, "Radar response to vegetation II: 8-18 GHz band," IEEE Trans. Ant. Prop., Vol. 23, 608-618, 1975.
    doi:10.1109/TAP.1975.1141133

    18. Bush, T. F. and F. T. Ulaby, "Radar return from a continuous vegetation canopy," IEEE Trans. Ant. Prop., Vol. 24, 269-276, 1976.
    doi:10.1109/TAP.1976.1141352

    19. Bush, T. F. and F. T. Ulaby, "An evaluation of radar as a crop classifier," Rem. Sens. Environ., Vol. 7, 15-36, 1978.
    doi:10.1016/0034-4257(78)90004-4

    20. Grody, N. C., "Remote sensing of atmospheric water content from satellites using microwave radiometry," IEEE Trans. Ant. Prop., Vol. 24, 1976.
    doi:10.1109/TAP.1976.1141324

    21. Tsang, L., J. A. Kong, E. Njoku, D. H. Staelin, and J. Waters, "Theory for microwave thermal emission from a layer of cloud or rain," IEEE Trans. Ant. Prop., Vol. 25, 650--657, 1977.
    doi:10.1109/TAP.1977.1141664

    22. Dickey, F. M., C. King, J. C. Holtzman, and R. K. Moore, "Moisture dependency of radar backscatter from irrigated and nonirrigated fields at 400 MHz and 13.3 GHz," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron., Vol. 12, 19-22, 1974.
    doi:10.1109/TGE.1974.294326

    23. Schmugge, T. J., P. Gloerson, T. Wilheit, and F. Geiger, "Remote sensing of soil moisture with microwave radiometers," J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 9, 317-323, 1974.
    doi:10.1029/JB079i002p00317

    24. Ulaby, F. T. and P. P. Batlivala, "Optimum radar parameters for mapping soil moisture," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron., Vol. 14, 81-93, 1976.
    doi:10.1109/TGE.1976.294414

    25. Njoku, E. G. and J. A. Kong, "Theory for passive sensing of near-surface soil moisture," J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 82, 3108-3118, 1977.
    doi:10.1029/JB082i020p03108

    26. Newton, R. W., J. W. Rouse, and Jr., "Microwave radiometer measurements of soil moisture constant," IEEE Trans. Ant. Prop., Vol. 28, 680-686, 1980.
    doi:10.1109/TAP.1980.1142386

    27. Wang, J. R., R. W. Newton, and J. W. Rouse, "Passive microwave remote sensing of soil moisture: The effect of tilled row structure," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., Vol. 18, 296-302, 1980.
    doi:10.1109/TGRS.1980.350305

    28. Jackson, T. J. and T. J. Schmugge, "Aircraft active microwave measurements for estimating soil moisture," Photogrammetr. Eng. and Remote Sens., Vol. 47, 801-805, 1981.

    29. Njoku, E. G. and P. E. O'Neill, "Multifrequency microwave radiometer measurements of soil moisture," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., Vol. 20, 468-475, 1981.

    30. Wang, J. R., P. E. O'Neill, T. J. Jackson, and E. T. Engman, "Multifrequency measurements of the effects of soil moisture, soil texture and surface roughness," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., Vol. 21, 44-51, 1983.
    doi:10.1109/TGRS.1983.350529

    31. Tsang, L., J. A. Kong, and R. T. Shin, Theory of Microwave Remote Sensing, Wiley-Interscience, NY, 1985.

    32. Gurvich, A. S., V. L. Kalinin, and D. T. Matveyer, "Influence of internal structure of glaciers on their thermal radio emission," Atm. Oceanic Phys. USSR, Vol. 9, 713-717, 1973.

    33. Tsang, L. and J. A. Kong, "The brightness temperature of a halfspace random medium with nonuniform temperature profile," Radio Science, Vol. 10, 1025-1033, 1975.
    doi:10.1029/RS010i012p01025

    34. England, A. W., "Thermal microwave emission from a halfpace containing scatterers," Radio Science, Vol. 9, 447-454, 1974.
    doi:10.1029/RS009i004p00447

    35. England, A. W., "Thermal microwave emission from a scattering layer," J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 80, 4484-4496, 1975.
    doi:10.1029/JB080i032p04484

    36. Tsang, L. and J. A. Kong, "Emissivity of half-space random media," Radio Science, Vol. 11, 593-598, 1976.
    doi:10.1029/RS011i007p00593

    37. Tsang, L. and J. A. Kong, "Thermal microwave emission from a halfpace random media," Radio Science, Vol. 11, 599-610, 1976.
    doi:10.1029/RS011i007p00599

    38. Stogryn, A., "Electromagnetic scattering by random dielectric constant fluctuations in a bounded medium," Radio Science, Vol. 9, 509-518, 1970.
    doi:10.1029/RS009i005p00509

    39. Leader, J. C., "Polarization dependence in EM scattering from Rayleigh scatterers embedded in a dielectric slab. I. Theory," J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 46, 4371-4385, 1975.
    doi:10.1063/1.321464

    40. Tsang, L. and J. A. Kong, "Radiative transfer theory for active remote sensing of half space random media," Radio Science, Vol. 13, 763-774, 1978.
    doi:10.1029/RS013i005p00763

    41. Fung, A. K. and H. S. Fung, "Application of first order renormalization method to scattering from a vegetated-like half space," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron., Vol. 15, 189-195, 1977.
    doi:10.1109/TGE.1977.294491

    42. Fung, A. K., "Scattering from a vegetation layer," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron., Vol. 17, 1-5, 1979.
    doi:10.1109/TGE.1979.294601

    43. Zuniga, M. and J. A. Kong, "Active remote sensing of random media," J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 51, 74-79, 1980.
    doi:10.1063/1.327335

    44. Zuniga, M., J. A. Kong, and L. Tsang, "Depolarization effects in the remote sensing of random media," J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 51, 2315-2325, 1980.
    doi:10.1063/1.328000

    45. Kong, J. A., R. Shin, J. C. Shiue, and L. Tsang, "Theory and experiment for passive remote sensing of snowpacks," J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 84, 5669-5673, 1979.
    doi:10.1029/JB084iB10p05669

    46. Tsang, L. and J. A. Kong, "Microwave remote sensing of a two-layer random medium," IEEE Trans. Ant. Prop., Vol. 24, 283-287, 1976.
    doi:10.1109/TAP.1976.1141347

    47. Zuniga, M. A. and J. A. Kong, "Modified radiative transfer theory for a two-layer random medium," J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 51, 5228-5244, 1980.
    doi:10.1063/1.327439

    48. Zuniga, M. and J. A. Kong, "Mean dyadic Green's function for a two-layer random medium," Radio Science, Vol. 16, 1255-1270, 1981.
    doi:10.1029/RS016i006p01255

    49. Blinn, III, J. C., J. E. Conel, and J. G. Quade, "Microwave emission from geological materials: Observations of interference effects," J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 77, 4366-4378, 1972.
    doi:10.1029/JB077i023p04366

    50. Fung, A. K. and M. F. Chen, "Emission from an inhomogeneous layer with irregular interfaces," Radio Science, Vol. 16, 289-298, 1981.
    doi:10.1029/RS016i003p00289

    51. Fung, A. K. and M. F. Chen, "Scattering from a Rayleigh layer with an irregular interface," Radio Science, Vol. 16, 1337-1347, 1981.
    doi:10.1029/RS016i006p01337

    52. Fung, A. K. and H. J. Eom, "A theory of wave scattering from an inhomogeneous layer with an irregular interface," IEEE Trans. Ant. Prop., Vol. 29, 899-910, 1981.

    53. Shin, R. T. and J. A. Kong, "Radiative transfer theory for active remote sensing of homogeneous layer containing spherical scatterers," J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 52, 4221-4230, 1981.

    54. Peake, W. H., "Interaction of electromagnetic waves with some natural surfaces," IEEE Trans. Ant. Prop., Vol. 7, No. Special Supplement, S324-S329, 1959.

    55. Bass, F. G. and I. M. Fuks, Wave Scattering fiom Statistically Rough Surface, translated by C. B. Vesecky and J. F. Vesecky, Rezamon Press, Oxford, 1979.

    56. Beckmann, P. and A. Spizzichino, "The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces," MacMillan, 1963.

    57. Kodis, R. D., "A note on the theory of scattering from an irregular surface," IEEE Trans. Ant. Prop., Vol. 14, 77-82, 1966.

    58. Lynch, P. J. and R. J. Wagner, "Energy conservation for rough surface scattering," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 47, 816-821, 1968.

    59. Lynch, P. L. and R. J. Wagner, "Rough-surface scattering: Shadowing, multiple scatterer and energy conservation," J. Math. Phys., Vol. 11, 3032-3042, 1970.

    60. Sancer, M. I., "Shadow-corrected electromagnetic scattering from a randomly rough surface," IEEE Trans. Ant. Prop., Vol. 17, 577-585, 1969.

    61. Semenov, B., "Approximate computation of scattering electromagnetic waves by rough surface contours," Radio Eng. Electron. Phys., Vol. 11, 1179-1187, 1966.

    62. Stogryn, A., "Electromagnetic scattering from rough finitely conducting surfaces," Radio Science, Vol. 2, 415-428, 1967.

    63. Barrick, D. E., "Relationship between slope probability density function and the physical optics integral in rough surface scattering," Proc. IEEE, Vol. 56, 1728-1729, 1968.

    64. Burrows, M. L., "On the composite model for rough surface scattering," IEEE Trans. Ant. Prop., Vol. 21, 241-243, 1973.

    65. Rice, S. O., "Reflection of EM waves by slightly rough surfaces," The Theory of Electromagnetic Waves, M. Khe, Ed., Interscience, NY, 1963.

    66. Valenzuela, G. R., "Depolarization of EM waves by slightly rough surfaces," IEEE Trans. Ant. Prop., Vol. 15, 552-557, 1967.

    67. Shen, J. and A. A. Maradudin, "Multiple scattering of waves from random rough surfaces," Phys. Rev. B, Vol. 22, 4234-4240, 1980.

    68. Shin, R. T., Theoretical models for microwave remote sensing of earth terrain, Ph.D. Thesis, MIT, 1984.

    69. Kong, J. A., Electromagnetic Wave Theory, Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1986.

    70. Shin, R. T. and J. A. Kong, "Theory for thermal microwave emission from a homogeneous layer with rough surfaces containing spherical scatterers," J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 87, 5566-5576, 1982.