A new theory on designing electromagnetic/optical devices has been proposed, namely, a surface transformation (ST). Compared with Transformation Optics (TO), we do not need to consider any mathematics on how to make a coordinate transformation, and what we need to do is simple to design the shapes of the input and the output surfaces of the device with pre-designed functions. Unlike the devices designed by TO which are often inhomogeneous anisotropic media, all the devices designed by ST only need one homogeneous anisotropic medium (referred as the optic-null medium) to realize. Our method will lead a new way to device design without considering any coordinate transformations.
A lossy metal-wall cavity resonator that extends well beyond perturbation theory limits is studied. An exact analytical solution is employed for the spherical cavity resonator, having walls transformed from being a perfect electrical conductor (PEC) to free space. This model then acts as an ideal benchmark reference standard. A plane-wave approximation is then derived. Independent full-wave numerical modeling of the spherical cavity resonator is undertaken using eigenmode solvers within two well-known commercial, industry-standard, simulation software packages (HFSS™ and COMSOL). It has been found that the plane-wave approximation model accurately characterizes the results generated by these solvers when equivalent finite conductivity boundary (FCB) and layered impedance boundary (LIB) conditions are used. However, the impedance boundary (IB) condition is accurately characterized by the exact model, but the precise value of complex wave impedance at the wall boundary for the specific resonance mode must first be known a priori. Our stress-testing results have profound implications on the usefulness of these commercial solvers for accurately predicting eigenfrequencies of lossy arbitrary 3D structures. For completeness, an exact series RLC equivalent circuit model is given specifically for a spherical cavity resonator having arbitrary wall losses, resulting in the derivation of an extended perturbation model.
Electromagnetic field transformations are important for electromagnetic simulations and for measurements. Especially for field measurements, the influence of the measurement probe must be considered, and this can be achieved by working with weighted field transformations. This paper is a review paper on weighted field transformations, where new information on algorithmic properties and new results are also included. Starting from the spatial domain weighted radiation integral involving free space Green's functions, properties such as uniqueness and the meaning of the weighting function are discussed. Several spectral domain formulations of the weighted field transformation integrals are reviewed. The focus of the paper is on hierarchical multilevel representations of irregular field transformations with propagating plane waves on the Ewald sphere. The resulting Fast Irregular Antenna Field Transformation Algorithm (FIAFTA) is a versatile and efficient transformation technique for arbitrary antenna and scattering fields. The fields can be sampled at arbitrary irregular locations and with arbitrary measurement probes without compromising the accuracy and the efficiency of the algorithm. FIAFTA supports different equivalent sources representations of the radiation or scattering object: 1) equivalent surface current densities discretized on triangular meshes, 2) plane wave representations, 3) spherical harmonics representations. The current densities provide for excellent spatial localization and deliver most diagnostics information about the test object. A priori information about the test object can easily be incorporated, too. Using plane wave and spherical harmonics representations, the spatial localization is not as good as with spatial current densities, but still much better than in the case of conventional modal expansions. Both far-field based expansions lead to faster transformations than the equivalent currents and in particular the orthogonal spherical harmonics expansion is a very attractive and robust choice. All three expansions are well-suited for efficient echo suppression by spatial filtering. Various new field transformation and new computational performance results are shown in order to illustrate some capabilities of the algorithm.
We study the magneto-permittivity effect in a magnetized plasma with appropriately designed parameters. We show that at frequency near the plasma frequency, magneto-optical activity plays an important role to manipulate and control the wave propagations in the magnetized plasma. Such a unique feature can be utilized to establish sensitive magnetic field switching mechanism, which is confirmed by detailed numerical investigations. Switching by magnetic field based on magnetized plasma is flexible and compatible with other optical system; moreover it is applicable to any frequency by tuning the plasma density. For these reason, our work shows the possibility for developing a new family of high frequency and ultrasensitive switching applications.
We investigate the electromagnetic wave propagation across a finite inhomogeneous and anisotropic cylindrical metamaterial composite containing both positive and negative effective refractive index parts with linear spatial gradient. Exact analytical solutions for the electric and magnetic field distributions are obtained for a linear variation of effective refractive index across the structure. The model allows for general temporal dispersion and uniform losses within the composite.
This paper describes a novel technique which has the potential to make a significant impact on the mapping of the human brain. This technique has been designed for 3D full-wave electromagnetic simulation of waves at very low frequencies and has been applied to the problem of modeling of brain waves which can be modeled as electromagnetic waves lying in the frequency range of 0.1-100 Hz. The use of this technique to model the brain waves inside the head enables one to solve the problem on a regular PC within 24 hrs, and requires just 1 GB of memory, as opposed to a few years of run time and nearly 200 Terabyte (200,000 GB) needed by the conventional FDTD (Finite Difference Time Domain) methods. The proposed technique is based on scaling the material parameters inside the head and solving the problem at a higher frequency (few tens of MHz) and then obtaining the actual fields at the frequency of interest (0.1-100 Hz) by using the fields computed at the higher frequency. The technique has been validated analytically by using the Mie Series solution for a homogeneous sphere, as well as numerically for a sphere, a finite lossy dielectric slab and the human head using the conventional Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) Method. The presented technique is universal and can be used to obtain full-wave solution to low-frequency problems in electromagnetics by using any numerical technique.
The deflection of charged particle beams by electric and/or magnetic fields is invariably based on the field centred approach associated with Maxwell-Lorentz and incorporated into the Lorentz force formula. Here we present an alternative method of calculation based on the force formula of Weber-Ritz and which does not involve, directly, the field entities E and B. In this study we evaluate the deflection of an electron beam by a long solenoid carrying direct current and positioned centrally across the beam. The experiment has some bearing on the Aharonov-Bohm effect in that our calculations indicate that even for very long solenoids the classical force on the beam remains finite. The standard interpretation of the effect is, however, in terms of quantum mechanics and vector potential. Experimental measurements have been made of electron beam deflections by three solenoids, 0.25 m, 0.50 m and 0.75 m long; each solenoid is doubly wound with the same winding density (2600 turns per metre) and carrying the same current of 5.00 A d.c. Our results indicate that, within the limits of experimental error, both Weber-Ritz and Maxwell-Lorentz theories correlate with measurements for the longer solenoids. However in the case of the shortest solenoid, the lack of uniformity of the magnetic field, leads to significant error in the calculation of beam deflection by the Lorentz force. By contrast in a Weber-Ritz calculation a precise value of beam deflection is obtained by equating the impulse of the non uniform beam force to the vertical momentum change of the electron. This is a fundamentally different approach which uses a statistical summation of forces on the beam in terms of relative velocities between moving electrons and involves a direct computation of the vertical force on the beam due to the circling solenoid current. This method has distinct advantages in terms of economy; that is, it does not involve directly field entities E and B, nor the leakage flux from the solenoid or the vector potential.
The electromagnetic force acting on a Rayleigh particle placed in a rectangular waveguide is studied. The particle is excited using the lowest order TE10 mode. It is determined that the particle is laterally trapped at the high intensity region of the electric field and either pushed away from or pulled toward the light source. This push-pull phenomenon depends on whether the frequency of the light wave is above or below the cutoff frequency (i.e. the particle can be pushed or pulled by tuning the frequency). While conventional optical tweezers rely on a balance of scattering and gradient force in the propagation direction, the phenomenon predicted here switches between the two forces near the lowest cutoff in a waveguide.
In this paper, we propose a new retrieval technique to estimate the dielectric permittivity of the sub-soil materials of a stratified structure. The core of the retrieval procedure is a proper electromagnetic circuit model representing the realistic stratified media as a cascade of transmission line segments. Exploiting the analogies between the electrical parameters of the transmission line segments and the constitutive parameters of the materials of the multilayer structure, the propagation of the Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) signal is equivalently represented as a pair of voltage and current waves propagating in the transmission line network. The effectiveness of the proposed retrieval technique is confirmed by proper experimental results. In particular, the retrieved electromagnetic parameters of the sub-soil materials are found to be consistent with the ones obtained by a direct characterization of the same materials. These results suggest that the proposed method can be successfully applied to the material characterization able to monitor several macroscopic properties of sub-soil materials.
A broadband artificial material based on meander-line (ML) structures is proposed for enhancing the gain of printed end-fire antennas. The ML based material with an effective index of refraction greater than 1 behaves as a dielectric lens in improving the directivity of an end-fire antenna. The electric field intensity distribution can be changed by the material, resulting in a more directional emission. Simulated results indicate extending the length or width of the material can lead to more significant gain enhancement without destroying the impedance bandwidth of the antenna. Three printed end-fire antennas with and without material loading are fabricated and measured. The measurements show that end-fire antennas loaded with two and four rows of ML structures can obtain gain increments of 0.6-3.6 dB and 1.2-5.7 dB, respectively, and that the radiation patterns are narrowed in both E- and H-planes over the whole operating band (6-11.5 GHz).
In this work we present a new physics-based approach for formulating MoM problems based on the use of dipole moments (DMs) --- as opposed to the conventional Green's functions. The proposed technique is valid over the entire frequency range without any need for special treatments and is also free of singularities associated with the Green's function. The DM approach can be used equally well to both PEC and Dielectric objects. We also introduce certain refinements to the DM method to improve its computational efficiency like the use of higher-order basis functions, combining the DM with the Characteristic Basis Function Method (CBFM), the use of closed-form expressions for the calculation of interaction matrix elements and employing Fast Matrix Generation (FMG) for electrically large problems. We also demonstrate ways to incorporate lumped loads, capture sharp resonances even at low frequencies, calculate the input impedance of small antennas, calculate fields from irregular geometries; from faceted surfaces; from geometries with slot and slit; and also demonstrate the capability to model microstrip line type of geometries with fine features.
Statistical Maxwell's Electromagnetic Theories have been developed over many years and applied to a wide range of practical problems in remote sensing of geographical media, imaging in biological media, medical optics, ultrasound imaging, and object detection and imaging and communications in clutter environment. This paper gives a review of recent advances, development and applications of statistical wave theory. Many important problems on imaging in geophysical and biological media have been treated often as separate problems. This paper attempts to present unified theoretical work and viewpoints under the statistical theories which may help further advance and understanding of theories and applications. The statistical electromagnetic theories encompass most advanced mathematical and theoretical work and most practical applications. This includes time-reversal imaging through multiple scattering media, super resolution, communication channel capacity in clutter, space-time vector radiative transfer, bio-electromagnetics and ultrasound in tissues, coherence in multiple scattering, memory effects, the use of transformation electromagnetics, seismic coda, and the fundamental multiple scattering theories. Statistical Electromagnetics Theories are one of the most challenging theoretical problems today involving many applications in geographical and biological media.
This paper presents a new approach for the realization of RF switches based on the Conductive Bridging Random Access Memory technology (CBRAM). This promising approach allows the realization of RF switches in an extremely simple manner at low cost. For the first time, an RF switch based on a MIM structure is realized with an insulator layer obtained from a commonly used resin deposited by spin coating. The paper reports a RF switch based on CBRAM and demonstrates a device integration onto plastic circuit board (PCB). The realized switch is validated by experimental measurements for a frequency range up to 1.5 GHz with an activation voltage less than 1 V.
The discontinuous Galerkin's (DG) method is an efficient technique for packaging problems. It divides an original computational region into several subdomains, i.e., splits a large linear system into several smaller and balanced matrices. Once the spatial discretization is solved, an optimal time integration method is necessary. For explicit time stepping schemes, the smallest edge length in the entire discretized domain determines the maximal time step interval allowed by the stability criterion, thus they require a large number of time steps for packaging problems. Implicit time stepping schemes are unconditionally stable, thus domains with small structures can use a large time step interval. However, this approach requires inversion of matrices which are generally not positive definite as in explicit shemes for the first-order Maxwell's equations and thus becomes costly to solve for large problems. This work presents an algorithm that exploits the sequential way in which the subdomains are usually placed for layered structures in packaging problems. Specifically, a reordering of interface and volume unknowns combined with a block LDU (Lower-Diagonal-Upper) decomposition allows improvements in terms of memory cost and time of execution, with respect to previous DGTD implementations.