Progress In Electromagnetics Research B
ISSN: 1937-6472
Home | Search | Notification | Authors | Submission | PIERS Home | EM Academy
Home > Vol. 26 > pp. 335-359


By G. E. Atteia and K. F. A. Hussein

Full Article PDF (781 KB)

A realistic model of ground soil is developed for the electromagnetic simulation of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) systems. A three dimensional Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) algorithm is formulated to model dispersive media using N-term Debye permittivity function with static conductivity. The formulation of the algorithm is based on the concept of the Piecewise Linear Recursive Convolution (PLRC) in order to simulate the dispersion properties of soil as a two-term Debye medium. This approach of ground modeling enhances the accuracy and reliability of results obtained for GPR problems. The developed algorithm is validated when simulating practical GPR Systems used to detect different objects buried in Puerto-Rico and San Antonio clay loams. The proposed algorithm is employed to compare the impact of using two-term Debye model to simulate real soil on the coupling coefficient between transmitting and receiving antennas due to the absence and presence of buried targets to that of using non-dispersive soil model. The effect of soil moisture content on the performance of GPR system in detecting buried objects such as metallic and plastic pipes is investigated.

G. E. Atteia and K. F. A. Hussein, "Realistic Model of Dispersive Soils Using PLRC-FDTD with Applications to GPR Systems," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 26, 335-359, 2010.

1. Yee, K. S., "Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell's equations in isotropic media," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 14, 302-307, May 1966.

2. Bourgeois, J. M. and G. S. Smith, "A fully three-dimensional simulation of a ground-penetrating radar: FDTD theory compared with experiment," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing, Vol. 34, 36-44, Jan. 1996.

3. Gurel, L. and U. Oguz, "Simulations of ground penetrating radars over lossy and heterogeneous grounds," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing, Vol. 39, 1190-1197, Jun. 2001.

4. Montoya, T. P. and G. S. Smith, "Landmine detection using a ground-penetrating radar based on resistively loaded Vee dipoles," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 47, 1795-1806, Dec. 1999.

5. Nishioka, Y., O. Maeshima, T. Uno, and S. Adachi, "FDTD analysis of resistor-loaded bow-tie antennas covered with ferrite-coated conducting cavity for subsurface radar," IEEE Tarns. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 47, 970-997, Jun. 1999.

6. Young, J. L., "Propagation in linear dispersive media: Finite difference time-domain methodologies," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 43, 422-426, 1995.

7. Sullivan, D. M., "Frequency-dependent FDTD methods using Z transforms," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 40, 1223-1230, Oct. 992.

8. Gandhi, O. P., B.-Q. Gao, and J.-Y. Chen, "A frequency-dependent ¯nite difference time-domain formulation for general dispersive media," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol., Vol. 41, 658-664, Apr. 1993.

9. Kashiva, T., Y. Ohtomo, and I. Fukai, "A finite-difference time-domain formulation for transient propagation in dispersive media associated with Cole-Cole's circular arc law," Microwave. Opt. Technol. Lett., Vol. 3, No. 12, 416-419, 1990.

10. Joseph, R. M., S. C. Hagness, and A. Taflove, "Direct time integration of Maxwell's equations in linear dispersive media with absorption for scattering and propagation of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses," Opt. Lett., Vol. 16, 1412-1414, 1991.

11. Luebbers, R. J., F. P. Huusberger, K. S. Kunz, R. B. Standler, and M. Schneider, "A frequency-dependent finite-difference time-domain formulation for dispersive materials," IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat., Vol. 32, 1412-1414, Aug. 1990.

12. Luebbers, R. J. and F. P. Hunsberger, "FDTD for Nth-order dispersive media," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 40, 1297-1301, Nov. 1992.

13. Luebbers, R. J., F. P. Hunsberger, and K. Kunz, "A frequency-dependent finite-difference time-domain formulation for transient propagation in plasma," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 39, 29-39, 1991.

14. Sullivan, D. M., "A frequency-dependent FDTD method for biological applications," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., Vol. 40, 532-539, Mar. 1992.

15. Kelley, D. F. and R. J. Luebbers, "Piecewise linear recursive convolution for dispersive media using FDTD," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 44, 792-797, 1996.

16. Weedon, W. H. and C. M. Rappaport, "A general method for FDTD modeling of wave propagation in arbitrary frequency-dispersive media," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 45, No. 3, 401-410, Mar. 1997.

17. Taflove, A., Computational Electromagnetics: The Finite-difference Time-domain Method, Artech House, Boston, MA, 2000.

18. Teixeira, F. L., W. C. Chew, M. Straka, M. L. Oristaglio, and T. Wang, "Finite-difference time-domain simulation of ground penetrating radar on dispersive, inhomogeneous, and conductive soils," IEEE Trans. Geos. and Remot. Sensing, Vol. 36, No. 6, 1928-Nov. 1937, 1998.

19. Lu, T., W. Cai, and P. Zhang, "Discontinuous galerkin time-domain method for GPR simulation in dispersive media," IEEE Trans. Geos. and Remot. Sensing, Vol. 43, No. 1, 72-80, Jan. 2005.

20. Uduwawala, D., M. Norgren, P. Fuks, and A. W. Gunawardena, "A complete FDTD simulation of a real GPR antenna system operating above lossy and dispersive grounds," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 50, 209-229, 2005.

© Copyright 2010 EMW Publishing. All Rights Reserved