PIER B
 
Progress In Electromagnetics Research B
ISSN: 1937-6472
Home | Search | Notification | Authors | Submission | PIERS Home | EM Academy
Home > Vol. 60 > pp. 259-274

EFFECTS OF RESONANCE-BASED PHASE SHIFTERS ON KA-BAND PHASED ARRAY ANTENNA PERFORMANCE FOR SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS

By M. Mohajer, M. Faraji-Dana, and S. Safavi-Naeini

Full Article PDF (492 KB)

Abstract:
Phase shifters are the key components of phased array systems which provide a low-profile solution for Ka-band satellite communications. In the transmitting mode, it is crucial for the phased array antenna system to meet the standard radiation masks, and any imperfections of phase shifters can yield into radiation mask violation. In this paper, we present the analytical approach to model the non-linear phase-frequency characteristics of Resonance-Based phase shifters, which constitute one of the most widely used class of phase shifters for Ka-band satellite communications. Furthermore, it has been investigated how the phase-frequency response non-linearity affects the phased array radiation patterns, gain, and the beam pointing direction. The simulation results show that, depending on the phase shifter phase-frequency response profile, the radiation mask satisfaction is an important factor in determining the system bandwidth.

Citation:
M. Mohajer, M. Faraji-Dana, and S. Safavi-Naeini, "Effects of Resonance-Based Phase Shifters on Ka-Band Phased Array Antenna Performance for Satellite Communications," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 60, 259-274, 2014.
doi:10.2528/PIERB14060906

References:
1. Ozbay, C., W. Teter, D. He, M. J. Sherman, G. L. Schneider, and J. A. Benjamin, "Design and implementation challenges in Ka/Ku dual-band Satcom-On-The-Move terminals for military applications," MilCOM, 2006.

2. Stark, A., et al., "SANTANA: Advanced electronically steerable antennas at Ka-band," 3rd European Conference on Antennas and Propagation, EuCAP 2009, 471-478, March 2009.

3. Jung, Y.-B., S. Eom, S. Jeon, A. V. Shishlov, and C. Kim, "Novel hybrid antenna design having a shaped reflector for mobile satellite communication applications," IEEE AP-S Int. Symp., Toronto,Canada, July 2010.

4. Kang, D.-W., J.-G. Kim, B.-W. Min, and G. M. Rebeiz, "Single and four-element-band transmit/receive phased-array silicon RFICs with 5-bit amplitude and phase control," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 57, No. 12, 3534-2543, December 2009.
doi:10.1109/TMTT.2009.2033302

5. Fakharzadeh, M., S. H. Jamali, P. Mousavi, and S. Safavi-Naeini, "Fast beamforming for mobile satellite receiver phased arrays: Theory and experiment," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 57, No. 6, 1645-1654, June 2009.
doi:10.1109/TAP.2009.2019911

6. Imaizumi, Y., Y. Suzuki, Y. Kawawkami, and K. Arakia, "A study on an onboard Ka-band phasedarray- fed imaging reflector antenna," 2002 IEEE APS, 144-147, 2002.

7. Rock, J. C., T. Hudson, B. Wolfson, D. Lawrence, B. Pillans, A. R. Brown, and L. Coryell, "A MEMS-based, Ka-band, 16-element sub-array," 2009 IEEE Aerospace Conference, 1-11, Big Sky,MT, March 2009.
doi:10.1109/AERO.2009.4839364

8. Greda, L. A. and A. Dreher, "Tx --- Terminal phased array for satellite communication at Ka band," 2007 EuMC, 2007.

9. Nagra, A. S. and R. A. York, "Distributed analog phase shifters with low insertion loss," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 47, 1705-1711, September 1999.
doi:10.1109/22.788612

10. Rebeiz, G. M., G.-L. Tan, and J. S. Hayden, "RF MEMS phase shifters: Design and applications," IEEE Microwave Mag., Vol. 3, 72-81, June 200.

11. Erker, E. G., A. S. Nagre, Y. Liu, P. Periaswamy, T. R. Taylor, J. Speck, and R. A. York, "Monolithic Ka-band phase shifter using volatge tunable BaSrTiO3 parallel plate capacitors," IEEE Microwave Guided Wave Lett., Vol. 10, 10-12, 2000.
doi:10.1109/75.842071

12. Bulja, S. and D. Mirshekar-Syahkal, "Meander line millimetre-wave liquid crystal based phase shifter," Electronics Letters, Vol. 46, No. 11, 769-771, 2010.
doi:10.1049/el.2010.3513

13. Sazegar, et al. and M., "Compact tunable phase shifters on screen-printed BST for balanced phased arrays," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 59, No. 12, 3331-3337, 2011.
doi:10.1109/TMTT.2011.2171985

14. Sokolov, V., et al., "A Ka-band GaAs monolithic phase shifter," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 31, No. 12, 1077-1083, 1983.
doi:10.1109/TMTT.1983.1131665

15. Ashtiani, A. E., et al., "Monolithic Ka-band 180-degree analog phase shifter employing HEMTbased varactor diodes," IEE Colloquium on Microwave and Millimetre-wave Oscillators and Mixers, No. 480, 1998.

16. Abbosh, A. M., "Compact tunable reflection phase shifters using short section of coupled lines," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 60, No. 8, 2465-2472, 2012.
doi:10.1109/TMTT.2012.2198232

17. Miyaguchi, K., et al., "An ultra-broad-band reflection-type phase-shifter MMIC with series and parallel LC circuits," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 49, No. 12, 2446-2452, 2001.
doi:10.1109/22.971634

18. Lambard, T., et al., "A novel analog 360 phase shifter design in Ku and Ka bands," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 52, No. 8, 1733-1736, 2010.
doi:10.1002/mop.25307

19. Moessinger, A., et al., "Compact tunable Ka-band phase shifter based on liquid crystals," 2010 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest, 2010.

20. Walters, R. A., et al., "Tunable end-coupled ferroelectric-gap filters based on barium strontium titanate capacitors," IEEE Asia-Pacific Conference on Applied Electromagnetics, 2005, APACE 2005, 2005.

21. Abadei, S., A. Deleniv, and S. Gevorgian, "Filter-phase shifters based on thin film ferroelectric varactors," 34th European Microwave Conference, 2004, Vol. 3, 2004.

22. Deleniv, A., S. Abadei, and S. Gevorgian, "Tunable ferroelectric filter-phase shifter," 2003 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest, Vol. 2, 2003.

23. Ni, N. and A. H. Cardona, "Ku-band analog phase shifters using individually designed all-pass networks with BST tunable capacitors," 2011 IEEE Radio and Wireless Symposium (RWS), 2011.

24. Mohajer, M., Gh. Z. Rafi, and S. Safavi-Naeini, "A taylor synthesis/optimization method for 2D minimum size transmitting phased array antenna," IEEE AP-S Int. Symp., Orlando, Florida, USA, July 2013.

25. Elliott, R. S., A Classic Reissue: Antenna Theory and Design, Revised Edition, IEEE and Wiley, New York, 1981.

26. Elliot, R. S., "Design of line-source antennas for sum patterns with sidelobes of individually arbitrary heights," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 24, 76-83, January 1976.
doi:10.1109/TAP.1976.1141287

27. Taylor, T. T., "Design of line-source antennas for narrow beamwidth and low sidelobes," IRE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 3, 16-28, 1955.
doi:10.1109/TPGAP.1955.5720407

28. Antenna performance standards, "FCC 25.209,", Revised as of December 4, 2012.

29. Fakharzadeh, M., P. Mousavi, S. Safavi-Naeini, and S. H. Jamali, "The effects of imbalanced phase shifters loss on phased array gain," IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag. Lett., Vol. 7, 192-196, July 2008.

30. Min, B.-W. and G. M. Rebeiz, "Single-ended and differential-band BiCMOS phased array front-ends," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 43, No. 10, 2239-2250, October 2008.
doi:10.1109/JSSC.2008.2004336

31. Matthaei, G. L., L. Young, and E. M. T. Jones, Microwave Filters, Impedance-matching Networks, and Coupling Structures, Vol. 5, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1964.

32. Viveiros, D., Jr., D. Consonni, and A. K. Jastrzebski, "A tunable all-pass MMIC active phase shifter," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 50, No. 8, 1885-1889, 2002.
doi:10.1109/TMTT.2002.801315

33. Hong, J. G. and M. J. Lancaster, Microstrip Filters for RF/Microwave Applications, Vol. 167, Wiley.com, 2004.

34. Blanco, M. A. and M. N. Richard, "Waveform design for Ka-band SATCOM high data rate links,", Technical Paper, The MITRE Corporation, October 2006.


© Copyright 2010 EMW Publishing. All Rights Reserved