PIER B
 
Progress In Electromagnetics Research B
ISSN: 1937-6472
Home | Search | Notification | Authors | Submission | PIERS Home | EM Academy
Home > Vol. 62 > pp. 195-223

A SURVEY OF MOTION-BASED MULTITARGET TRACKING METHODS

By C. Qiu, Z. Zhang, H. Lu, and H. Luo

Full Article PDF (335 KB)

Abstract:
Multitarget tracking (MTT) in surveillance system is extremely challenging, due to uncertain data association, maneuverable target motion, dense clutter disturbance, and real-time processing requirements. A good many methods have been proposed to cope with these challenges. However, no up-to-date survey is available in the literature that can help to select suitable tracking algorithm for practical problem. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art motion-based MTT techniques, classifies existing methods into two groups, i.e., the detect-before-track (DBT) scheme and the track-before-detect (TBD) scheme. The DBT scheme is employed to achieve robust and tractable tracking performance when the signal-noise-ratio (SNR) is strong. The TBD scheme is used in the scenarios of low SNR, and it aims to cumulate target energy by multiple sensor frames. Furthermore, depending on the data association mechanism, the DBT methods can be classified into two categories, data association based approaches and finite set statistics (FISST) based approaches. And the TBD methods can be classified into non-Bayesian approaches and Bayesian approaches depending on the basis theory used for tracking. For each category, this paper provides the detailed descriptions of the representative algorithms, and examines their pros and cons. Finally, new trends for future research directions are offered.

Citation:
C. Qiu, Z. Zhang, H. Lu, and H. Luo, "A Survey of Motion-Based Multitarget Tracking Methods," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 62, 195-223, 2015.
doi:10.2528/PIERB15010503

References:
1. Yoon, S. P., T. L. Song, and T. H. Kim, "Automatic target recognition and tracking in forward-looking infrared image sequences with a complex background," International Journal of Control, Automation, and Systems, Vol. 11, No. 1, 21-32, 2013.

2. Guldogana, M. B., et al., "Multi-target tracking with PHD filter using Doppler-only measurements," Digital Signal Processing, Vol. 27, 1-11, 2014.

3. Tastambekov, K., S. Puechmorel, D. Delahaye, and C. Rabut, "Aircraft trajectory forecasting using local functional regression in Sobolev space," Transportation Research Part C, Vol. 39, 1-22, 2014.

4. Jan, S.-S. and Y.-C. Kao, "Radar tracking with an interacting multiple model and probabilistic data association filter for civil aviation applications," Sensors, Vol. 13, 6636-6650, 2013.

5. Manchester, I. R., A. V. Svakin, and F. A. Faruqi, "Method for optical-flow-based precision missile guidance," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 44, No. 3, 835-851, 2008.

6. Lampropoulos, G. A. and J. F. Boulter, "Filtering of moving targets using SBIR sequential frames," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 31, No. 4, 1255-1267, Oct. 1995.

7. Mazor, E., A. Averbuch, Y. Bar-Shalom, and J. Dayan, "Interacting multiple model methods in target tracking: A survey," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 34, No. 1, 103-123, 1998.

8. Georgy, J., A. Noureldin, and G. R. Mellema, "Clustered mixture particle filter for underwater multitarget tracking in multistatic active sonobuoy systems," IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part C: Applications and Reviews, Vol. 42, No. 4, 547-560, Jul. 2012.

9. Georgy, J. and A. Noureldin, "Unconstrained underwater multi-target tracking in passive sonar systems using two-stage PF-based technique," International Journal of Systems Science, Vol. 45, No. 3, 439-455, 2014.

10. Capozzoli, A., C. Curcio, A. Di Vico, and A. Liseno, "NUFFT- & GPU-based fast imaging of vegetation," IEICE Trans. Commun., Vol. E94-B, No. 7, 2092-2103, 2011.

11. Capozzoli, A., C. Curcio, and A. Liseno, "Fast GPU-based interpolation for SAR backprojection," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 133, 259-283, 2013.

12. Bar-Shalom, Y., Multitarget-multisensor Tracking: Advanced Applications, Artech House, Norwood, MA, 1990.

13. Bar-Shalom, Y., Multitarget-multisensor Tracking: Applications and Advances, Artech House, Norwwod, MA, 1992.

14. Bar-Shalom, Y. and X. R. Li, Multitarget-multisensor Tracking: Principles and Techniques, YBS Publishing, Storrs, CT, 1995.

15. Pulford, G. W., "Taxonomy of multiple target tracking methods," IEE Radar, Sonar and Navigation, Vol. 152, No. 5, 291-304, Oct. 2005.

16. Li, X. R. and V. P. Jilkov, "Survey of maneuvering target tracking --- Part I: Dynamic models," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 39, No. 4, 1333-1364, Oct. 2003.

17. Li, X. R. and V. P. Jilkov, "A survey of maneuvering target tracking --- Part II: Ballistic target models," Proc. 2001 SPIE Conf. on Signal and Data Processing of Small Targets, Vol. 4473, 559-581, San Diego, CA, USA, Jul.-Aug. 2001.

18. Li, X. R. and V. P. Jilkov, "A survey of maneuvering target tracking --- Part III: Measurement models," Proc. 2001 SPIE Conf. on Signal and Data Processing of Small Targets, Vol. 4473, 423-446, San Diego, CA, USA, Jul.-Aug. 2001.

19. Li, X. R. and V. P. Jilkov, "A survey of maneuvering target tracking --- Part IV: Decision-based methods," Proc. 2002 SPIE Conf. on Signal and Data Processing of Small Targets, Vol. 4728, Orlando, Florida, USA, Apr. 2002.

20. Li, X. R. and V. P. Jilkov, "A survey of maneuvering target tracking --- Part V: Multiple-model methods," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 39, No. 4, 1-58, Nov. 2003.

21. West, M. and N. Harrison, Bayesian Forecasting and Dynamic Models, Springer, New York, 1997.

22. Paravati, G., A. Sanna, and B. Pralio, "A genetic algorithm for target tracking in FLIR video sequences using intensity variation function," IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 58, No. 10, 3457-3467, 2009.

23. Yi, W., M. R. Morelande, L. Kong, and J. Yang, "A computationally efficient particle filter for multitarget tracking using an independence approximation," IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, Vol. 61, No. 4, 843-856, 2013.

24. Mahler, R. P. S., "Multitarget Bayes filtering via first-order multitarget moments," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 39, No. 4, 1152-1178, 2003.

25. Mahler, R. P. S., "PHD filters of higher order in target number," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 43, No. 3, 1523-1543, 2007.

26. Boers, Y. and J. Driessen, "Multitarget particle filter track before detect application," Proc. IEE Radar, Sonar, Navig., Vol. 151, No. 6, 351-357, 2004.

27. Oh, S., S. Russell, and S. Sastry, "Markov chain Monte Carlo data association for multitarget tracking," IEEE Trans. Autom. Control, Vol. 54, No. 3, 481-497, 2009.

28. Sigalov, D. and N. Shimkin, "Cross entropy algorithms for data association in multitarget tracking," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 47, No. 2, 1166-1185, 2011.

29. Chen, Y. M. and H. C. Huang, "Fuzzy logic approach to multisensor data association," Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, Vol. 52, 399-412, 2000.

30. Rong, L. X. and Y. Bar-Shalom, "Tracking in clutter with nearest neighbor filter: Analysis and performance," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 32, No. 3, 995-1010, 1996.

31. Smith, P. and G. Buechler, "A branching algorithm for discriminating and tracking multiple objects," IEEE Trans. Autom. Control, Vol. 20, 101-104, 1975.

32. Zaveri, M. A., S. N. Merchant, and U. B. Desai, "Robust neural-network-based data association and multiple model-based tracking of multiple point targets," IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics --- Part C: Applications and Reviews, Vol. 37, No. 3, 337-351, 2007.

33. Dallil, A., A. Ouldali, and M. Oussalah, "Data association in multitarget tracking using belief function," J. Intell. Robot Syst., Vol. 67, 219-227, 2012.

34. Saad, E. M., E. Bardawiny, H. I. Ali, and N. M. Shawky, "MCMC particle filter using new data association technique with viterbi filtered gate method for multitarget tracking in heavy clutter," International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, Vol. 2, No. 8, 1-11, 2011.

35. Shafique, K. and M. Shah, "A noniterative greedy algorithm for multiframe point correspondence," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell., Vol. 27, No. 1, 51-65, Jan. 2005.

36. Chavali, P. and A. Nehorai, "Concurrent particle filtering and data association using game theory for tracking multiple maneuvering targets," IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, Vol. 61, No. 20, 4934-4948, 2013.

37. Chen, G. and L. Hong, "A genetic based multi dimensional data association algorithm for multi sensor multi target tracking," Math. Comput. Model., Vol. 26, No. 4, 57-69, Aug. 1997.

38. Turkmen, I., K. Guney, and D. Karaboga, "Genetic tracker with neural network for single and multiple target tracking," Neurocomputing, Vol. 69, No. 16-18, 2309-2319, Oct. 2006.

39. Poore, A. R. and N. Rijavec, "Multi-target tracking and multi-dimensional assignment problems," Proceedings of SPIE, Signal and Data Processing of Small Targets 1991, Vol. 1481, 345-356, 1991.

40. Reid, D. B., "An algorithm for tracking multiple targets," IEEE Trans. Autom. Control, Vol. 24, No. 6, 843-854, Dec. 1979.

41. Cox, I. and S. Hingorani, "An efficient implementation of Reid’s multiple hypothesis tracking algorithm and its evaluation for the purpose of visual tracking," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell., Vol. 18, No. 2, 138-150, Feb. 1996.

42. Morefield, C. L., "Application of 0-1 integer programming to multitarget tracking problems," IEEE Trans. Autom. Control, Vol. 22, No. 3, 302-312, Jun. 1971.

43. Poore, A., "Multidimensional assignment and multitarget tracking," Partitioning Data Sets, I. J. Cox, P. Hansen, and B. Julesz, Eds., 169-196, American Mathematical Society, Providence, RI, 1995.

44. Jonker, R. and A. Volgenant, "A shortest augmenting path algorithm for dense and sparse linear assignment problems," Journal of Computing, Vol. 38, 325-340, 1987.

45. Popp, R. L., K. Pattipati, and Y. Bar-Shalom, "M-best S-D assignment algorithm with application to multitarget tracking," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 37, 22-39, 2001.

46. Garey, M. and D. Johnson, Computers and Intractability --- A Guide to the Theory of NP-completeness, Bell Telephone Laboratories, 1979.

47. Deb, S., M. Yeddanapudi, K. Pattipati, and Y. Bar-Shalom, "A generalized S-D assignment algorithm for multisensory-multitarget state estimation," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 33, 523-538, 1999.

48. Poore, A. B. and N. Rijavec, "A Lagrangian relaxation algorithm for multidimensional assignment problems arising from multitarget tracking," SIAM Journal of Optimization, Vol. 3, 544-563, Aug. 1993.

49. Bozdogan, A. O. and M. Efe, "Improved assignment with ant colony optimization for multi-target tracking," Expert Systems with Applications, Vol. 38, 9172-9178, 2011.

50. Walteros, J. L., C. Vogiatzis, E. L. Pasiliao, and P. M. Pardalos, "Integer programming models for the multidimensional assignment problem with star costs," European Journal of Operational Research, Vol. 235, 553-568, 2014.

51. Huang, C., Y. Li, and R. Nevatia, "Multiple target tracking by learning-based hierarchical association of detection responses," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell., Vol. 35, No. 4, 898-910, 2013.

52. Fortmann, T., Y. Bar-Shalom, and M. Scheffe, "Sonar tracking of multiple targets using joint probabilistic data association," IEEE Journnal of Oceanic Engineering, Vol. 8, No. 3, 173-183, Jul. 1983.

53. De Laet, T., H. Bruyninckx, and J. De Schutter, "Shape-based online multitarget tracking and detection for targets causing multiple measurements: Variational Bayesian clustering and lossless data association," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell., Vol. 33, No. 12, 2477-2491, 2011.

54. Roecker, J. and G. Phillis, "Suboptimal joint probabilistic data association," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 29, No. 2, 510-517, Apr. 1993.

55. Roecker, J., "A class of near optimal JPDA algorithms," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 30, No. 2, 504-510, Apr. 1994.

56. Pasula, H., S. J. Russell, M. Ostland, and Y. Ritov, "Tracking many objects with many sensors," Proc. Int. Joint Conf. Artif. Intell., 1160-1171, Stockholm, Sweden, 1999.

57. Yu, Q., G. Medioni, and I. Cohen, "Multiple target tracking using spatiotemporal Markov chain Monte Carlo data association," Proc. IEEE Conf. Comp. Vis. Pattern Recog., 1-8, Jun. 2007.

58. Streit, R. L. and T. E. Luginbuhl, "Maximum likelihood method for probabilistic multi-hypothesis tracking," Proceedings of SPIE, Signal and Data Processing of Small Targets, Vol. 2335, Orlando, FL, Apr. 5-7, 1994.

59. Willett, P., Y. Ruan, and R. Streit, "PMHT: Problems and some solutions," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 38, No. 4, 738-754, 2002.

60. Bar-Shalom, Y. and X. Li, Estimation with Applications to Tracking and Navigation, Artech House, Norwood, MA, 2001.

61. Gustafsson, F., Adaptive Filtering and Change Detection, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, 2000.

62. Chang, C. and M. Athans, "State estimation for discrete systems with switching parameters," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 14, No. 3, 418-425, 1978.

63. Maybeck, P. and B. Smith, "Multiple model tracker based on Gaussian mixture reduction for maneuvering targets in clutter," Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Information Fusion, 40-47, 2005.

64. Blom, H. and Y. Bar-Shalom, "The interacting multiple model algorithm with Markovian switching coefficients," IEEE Trans. Autom. Control, Vol. 33, No. 8, 780-783, 1988.

65. Kirubarajan, T., Y. Bar-Shalom, K. Pattipati, and I. Kadar, "Ground target tracking with variable structure IMM estimator," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 36, No. 1, 26-46, 2000.

66. Salmond, D., "Mixture reduction algorithms for target tracking in clutter," SPIE Signal and Data Processing of Small Targets, Vol. 1305, 434-445, 1990.

67. Musicki, D. and S. Suvorova, "Tracking in clutter using IMM-IPDA-based algorithms," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 44, No. 1, 111-126, 2008.

68. Dempster, R., S. Blackman, and T. Nichols, "Combining IMM filtering and MHT data association for multitarget tracking," The 29th Southeastern Symp. Syst. Theory, Cookeville, TN, 1997.

69. Li, X. and Y. Zhang, "Multiple-model estimation with variable structure. Part V: Likely-model set algorithm," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 36, No. 2, 448-465, 2000.

70. Li, X., "Engineer's guide to variable structure multiple-model estimation for tracking," Multitarget-multisensor Tracking: Applications and Advances, Vol. 3, 499-567, 2000.

71. Ho, T. and B. Chen, "Novel extended Viterbi-based multiple model algorithms for state estimation of discrete-time systems with Markov jump parameters," IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, Vol. 54, No. 2, 393-404, 2006.

72. Kalman, R. E., "A new approach to linear filtering and prediction problem," Journal of Basic Engineering, Vol. 82, 35-45, 1960.

73. Daeipour, E. and Y. Bar-Shalom, "An interacting multiple model approach for target tracking with glint noise," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 31, No. 2, 150-154, 1995.

74. Wu, W. and P. Cheng, "Nonlinear IMM algorithm for maneuvering target tracking," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 30, 875-884, 1994.

75. Julier, S. J., J. K. Uhlmann, and H. F. Durrant-Whyte, "A new approach for filtering nonlinear systems," Proc. Amer. Contr. Conf., 1628-1632, Seattle, WA, Jun. 1995.

76. Alspach, D. L. and H. W. Sorenson, "Nonlinear Bayesian estimation using Gaussian sum approximation," IEEE Trans. Autom. Control, Vol. 17, No. 4, 439-448, 1972.

77. Bilik, I. and J. Tabrikian, "Optimal recursive filtering using Gaussian mixture model," IEEE Workshop on Statistical Signal Processing, 399-404, 2005.

78. Bilik, I. and J. Tabrikian, "MMSE-based filtering in the presence of non-Gaussian system and measurement noise," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 46, No. 2, 1153-1170, 2010.

79. Bucy, R. S., "Bayes theorem and digital realization for nonlinear filters," J. Astronaut. Sci., Vol. 80, 73-97, 1969.

80. Kreucher, C. and K. Kastella, "Multiple-model nonlinear filtering for low-signal ground target applications," Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Aerosense Symposium, Vol. 4380, 1-12, 2001.

81. Kitagawa, G., "Non-Gaussian state-space modeling of nonstationary time series," J. Am. Stat. Assoc., Vol. 82, No. 400, 1032-1063, 1987.

82. Bergman, N., "Recursive Bayesian estimation: Navigation and tracking applications,", Ph.D. Dissertation, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden, 1999.

83. Gordon, N. J., D. J. Salmond, and A. F. M. Smith, "Novel approach to nonlinear/non-Gaussian Bayesian state estimation," IEE Proc. F, Vol. 140, No. 2, 107-113, 1993.

84. Yang, C. J., R. Duraiswami, and L. Davis, "Fast multiple object tracking via a hierarchical particle filter," IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision, Vol. 1, 212-219, 2005.

85. Kotecha, N. and P. Djurić, "Gaussian sum particle filtering," IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, Vol. 51, No. 10, 2602-2612, 2003.

86. Wang, Y.-D., J.-K.Wu, A. A. Kassim, and W. Huang, "Data-driven probability hypothesis density filter for visual tracking," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol., Vol. 18, No. 8, 1085-1095, Aug. 2008.

87. Orton, M. and W. Fitzgerald, "A Bayesian approach to tracking multiple targets using sensor arrays and particle filters," IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, Vol. 50, No. 2, 216-223, 2002.

88. Maskell, S., M. Rollason, N. Gordon, and D. Salmond, "Efficient particle filtering for multiple target tracking with application to tracking in structured images," Proceedings of SPIE Conference on Signal and Data Processing of Small Targets, 2002, Orlando, FL, Apr. 1-5, 2002.

89. Stone, L. D., C. A. Barlow, and T. L. Corwin, Bayesian Multiple Target Tracking, Artech House, Norwood, MA, 1999.

90. Hue, C., J.-P. Le Cadre, and P. Perez, "Tracking multiple objects with particle filtering," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 38, No. 3, 791-812, 2002.

91. Karlsson, R. and F. Gustafsson, "Monte-Carlo data association for multiple target tracking," Proc. IEE Int. Seminar Target Tracking: Algorithms Appl., Vol. 1, 1-5, Oct. 2001.

92. Blom, H. A. P. and E. A. Bloem, "Joint IMMPDA particle filter," Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Information Fusion, Vol. 2, 785-792, Cairns, Queensland, Australia, Jul. 2003.

93. Vermaak, J., S. Godsill, and P. Perez, "Monte-Carlo filtering for multitarget tracking and data association," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 41, No. 1, 309-332, Jan. 2005.

94. Vermaak, J., S. Maskell, and M. Briers, "Tracking a variable number of targets using the existence joint probabilistic data association filter," Tech. Rep., 2005, Download from http://www-sigproc.eng.cam.ac.uk!jv211.

95. Särkkä, S., A. Vehtari, and J. Lampinen, "Rao-blackwellized Monte-Carlo data association for multiple target tracking," Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Information Fusion, 583-590, Stockholm, Sweden, Jun. 2004.

96. Sarkka, S., A. Vehtari, and J. Lampinen, "Rao-blackwellized particle filter for multiple target tracking," Information Fusion, Vol. 8, No. 1, 2-15, Jan. 2007.

97. Ng, W., J. Li, and S. Godsill, "Online multisensor-multitarget detection and tracking," IEEE Aerospace Conference, 2006.

98. Ng, W., J. Li, and S. Godsill, "Online multisensor-multitarget detection and tracking using variable rate particle filters," IEEE Aerospace Conference, 1-16, 2007.

99. Kyriakides, I., D. Morrell, and A. Papandreou-Suppappola, "Sequential Monte Carlo methods for tracking multiple targets with deterministic and stochastic constraints," IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, Vol. 56, 937-948, 2008.

100. Khan, Z., T. Balch, and F. Dellaert, "MCMC-based particle filtering for tracking a variable number of interacting targets," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell., Vol. 27, No. 11, 1805-1819, Nov. 2005.

101. Jaward, M., L. Mihaylova, N. Canagarajah, and D. Bull, "Multiple object tracking using particle filters," IEEE Aerospace Conference, 2151-2158, 2006.

102. Vermaak, J., A. Doucet, and P. Perez, "Maintaining multi-modality through mixture tracking," Proc. IEEE Conf. Computer Vision, 1110-1116, 2003.

103. Okuma, K., A. Taleghani, N. D. Freitas, J. Little, and D. Lowe, "A boosted particle filter: Multitarget detection and tracking," Proc. Eur. Conf. Comput. Vision, 28-39, 2004.

104. Chang, C., R. Ansari, and A. Khokhar, "Multiple object tracking with Kernel particle filter," Proc. IEEE Conf. Comput. Vision Pattern Recognit., 566-573, 2005.

105. Liu, J., et al., "Evidence theory-based mixture particle filter for joint detection and tracking of multiple targets," IET Radar Sonar Navig., Vol. 6, No. 7, 649-658, 2012.

106. Mahler, R., "Statistics 101’ for multisensor, multitarget fusion," IEEE Aerosp. Electron. Syst. Mag., Vol. 19, No. 1, 53-64, 2004.

107. Mahler, R., "Statistics 102’ for multisource-multitarget detection and tracking," IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing, Vol. 7, No. 3, 376-389, 2013.

108. Erdinc, O., P. Willett, and Y. Bar-Shalom, "The bin-occupancy filter and its connection to the PHD filters," IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, Vol. 57, No. 11, 4232-4246, 2009.

109. Singh, S., B. Vo, A. Baddeley, and S. Zuyev, "Filters for spatial point processes," SIAM J. Control Optimiz., Vol. 48, No. 4, 2275-2295, 2009.

110. Caron, F., P. D. Moral, A. Doucet, and M. Pace, "On the conditional distributions of spatial point processes," Adv. Appl. Probab., Vol. 43, No. 2, 301-307, 2011.

111. Mahler, R., Statistical Multisource-multitarget Information Fusion, Artech House, Norwood,MA, 2007.

112. Vo, B.-T., B.-N. Vo, and A. Cantoni, "The cardinality balanced multitarget multi-bernoulli filter and its implementations," IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, Vol. 57, No. 2, 409-423, 2009.

113. Vo, B.-N. and W.-K. Ma, "The Gaussian mixture probability hypothesis density filter," IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, Vol. 54, No. 11, 4091-4104, Nov. 2006.

114. Vo, B.-T., B.-N. Vo, and A. Cantoni, "Analytic implementations of the cardinalized probability hypothesis density filter," IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, Vol. 55, No. 7, 3553-3567, Jul. 2007.

115. Vo, B.-N., S. Singh, and A. Doucet, "Sequential Monte Carlo methods for multitarget filtering with random finite sets," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 41, No. 4, 1224-1245, Oct. 2005.

116. Sidenbladh, H., "Multitarget particle filtering for the probability hypothesis density," Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Fusion, 800-806, Cairns, Australia, 2003.

117. Clark, D. and B.-N. Vo, "Convergence analysis of the Gaussian mixture PHD filter," IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, Vol. 55, No. 4, 1204-1212, 2007.

118. Maggio, E., M. Taj, and A. Cavallaro, "Efficient multitarget visual tracking using random finite sets," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol., Vol. 18, No. 8, 1016-1027, Aug. 2008.

119. Whiteley, N., S. Singh, and S. Godsill, "Auxiliary particle implementation of probability hypothesis density filter," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 46, No. 3, 1437-1454, 2010.

120. Ristic, B., D. Clark, and B.-N. Vo, "Improved SMC implementation of the PHD filter," Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Information Fusion, 1-8, Edinburgh, Jul. 2010.

121. Xu, B., H. Xu, and J. Zhu, "Ant clustering PHD filter for multiple-target tracking," Applied Soft Computing, Vol. 11, 1074-1086, 2011.

122. Liu, W., C. Han, F. Lian, and H. Zhu, "Multitarget state extraction for the PHD filter using MCMC approach," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 46, No. 2, 864-883, 2010.

123. Wei, Y., Y. Fu, J. Long, and X. Li, "Joint detection, tracking, and classification of multiple targets in clutter using the PHD filter," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 48, No. 4, 3594-3609, 2012.

124. Clark, D. and J. Bell, "Convergence results for the particle PHD filter," IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, Vol. 54, No. 7, 2652-2661, Jul. 2006.

125. Pasha, A., B.-N. Vo, H. D. Tuan, and W. K. Ma, "A Gaussian mixture PHD filter for jump Markov system model," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 45, No. 3, 919-936, 2009.

126. Pasha, A., B. Vo, H. Tuan, and W.-K. Ma, "Closed form PHD filtering for linear jump Markov models," Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Information Fusion, 1-8, Jul. 2006.

127. Vo, B., A. Pasha, and H. D. Tuan, "A Gaussian mixture PHD filter for nonlinear jump Markov models," Proceedings of the 45th IEEE Conference on Decision and Contol, Vol. 114, 6063-6068, 2006.

128. Punithakumar, K., A. Sinha, and T. Kirubarajan, "Multiple model probability hypothesis density filter for tracking maneuvering targets," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 44, No. 1, 87-98, 2008.

129. Pasha, S. A., H. D. Tuan, and P. Apkarian, "The LFT based PHD filter for nonlinear jump Markov models in multitarget tracking," Joint 48th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control and 28th Chinese Control Conference, Shanghai, P. R. China, Dec. 16-18, 2009.

130. Wood, T. M., "Interacting methods for manoeuvre handling in the GM-PHD filter," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 47, No. 4, 3021-3025, 2011.

131. Georgescu, R. and P. Willett, "The multiple model CPHD tracker," IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, Vol. 60, No. 4, 1741-1751, 2012.

132. Mahler, R., "CPHD and PHD filters for unknown backgrounds, I: Dynamic data clustering," Proceedings of SPIE, Sensors and Systems for Space Applications III, Vol. 7330, Orlando, FL, 2009.

133. Mahler, R., "CPHD and PHD filters for unknown backgrounds, II:Multitarget filtering in dynamic clutter," Proceedings of SPIE, Sensors and Systems for Space Applications III, Vol. 7330, Orlando, FL, 2009.

134. Mahler, R., A. El-Fallah, and O. Drummond, "CPHD and PHD filters for unknown backgrounds, III: Tractable multitarget filtering in dynamic clutter," SPIE Proc. Signal Data Process., Small Targets 2010, Vol. 7698, 2010.

135. Mahler, R., A. El-Fallah, and I. Kadar, "CPHD filtering with unknown probability of detection," Proceedings of the SPIE Signal Process, Sensor Fusion, and Target Recognition, XIX, Vol. 7697, 2010.

136. Ronald, M. and B. Vo, "CPHD filtering with unknown clutter rate and detection profile," IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, Vol. 59, No. 8, 3497-3513, 2011.

137. Chen, X., R. Tharmarasa, M. Pelletier, and T. Kirubarajan, "Integrated clutter estimation and target tracking using poisson point processes," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 48, No. 2, 1210-1235, 2012.

138. Lian, F., C. Han, and W. Liu, "Estimating unknown clutter intensity for PHD filter," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 46, No. 4, 2066-2078, 2010.

139. Ristic, B., D. Clark, B.-N. Vo, and B.-T. Vo, "Adaptive target birth intensity for PHD and CPHD filters," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 48, No. 2, 1656-1668, The University of Western Australia, 2012.

140. Maggio, E. and A. Cavallaro, "Learning scene context for multiple object tracking," IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, Vol. 18, No. 8, 1873-1884, 2009.

141. Houssineau, J. and D. Laneuville, "PHD filter with diffuse spatial prior on the birth process with applications to GM-PHD filter," Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Information Fusion, Edinburgh, U.K., 2010.

142. Wang, Y., Z. Jing, S. Hu, and J. Wu, "Detection-guided multitarget Bayesian filter," Signal Processing, Vol. 92, 564-574, 2012.

143. Zhou, X., Y. F. Li, and B. He, "Entropy distribution and coverage rate-based birth intensity estimation in GM-PHD filter for multitarget visual tracking," Signal Processing, Vol. 94, 650-660, 2014.

144. Yoon, J. H., D. Y. Kim, S. H. Bae, and V. Shin, "Joint initialization and tracking of multiple moving objects using doppler information," IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, Vol. 59, No. 7, 3447-3452, 2011.

145. Lundgren, M., L. Svensson, and L. Hammarstrand, "A CPHD filter for tracking with spawning models," IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing, Vol. 7, No. 3, 496-507, 2013.

146. Panta, K., B. Vo, S. Singh, and A. Doucet, "Probability hypothesis density filter versus multiple hypothesis tracking," Proceedings of the SPIE Signal Process, Sensor Fusion, and Target Recognition, XIII, Vol. 5429, 284-295, I. Kadar (Ed.), 2004.

147. Panta, K., B. N. Vo, and S. Singh, "Novel data association schemes for the probability hypothesis density filter," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 43, No. 2, 556-570, 2007.

148. Yang, J. and H. Ji, "A novel track maintenance algorithm for PHD/CPHD filter," Signal Processing, Vol. 92, 2371-2380, 2012.

149. Ouyang, C., H. Ji, and Y. Tian, "Improved Gaussian mixture CPHD tracker for multitarget tracking," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 49, No. 2, 1177-1191, 2013.

150. Lin, L., Y. Bar-Shalom, and T. Kirubarajan, "Data association combined with the probability hypothesis density filter for multitarget tracking," Proceedings of the SPIE Signal Data Process of Small Targets, Vol. 5428, 464-475, O. E. Drummond (Ed.), 2004.

151. Lin, L., Y. Bar-Shalom, and T. Kirubarajan, "Track labeling and PHD filter for multitarget tracking," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 42, No. 3, 778-795, 2006.

152. Pollard, E., B. Pannetier, and M. Rombaut, "Hybrid algorithms for multitarget tracking using MHT and GM-CPHD," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 47, No. 2, 832-847, 2011.

153. Petetin, Y., D. Clark, B. Ristic, and D. Maltese, "A tracker based on a CPHD filter approach for infrared applications," Proc. Of SPIE, Signal Processing, Sensor Fusion, and Target Recognition, XX, Vol. 8050, 1-12, 2011.

154. Clark, D. E. and J. Bell, "Data association for the PHD filter," Proceedings of the International Conference on Intelligent Sensors, Sensor Networks and Information Processing, 217-222, Melbourne, Australia, 2005.

155. Clark, D. and J. Bell, "Multitarget state estimation and track continuity for the particle PHD filter," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 43, No. 4, 1441-1453, 2007.

156. Clark, D. E., K. Panta, and B. N. Vo, "The GM-PHD filter multiple target tracker," Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Information Fusion, 1-8, Florence, Italy, Jul. 10-13, 2006.

157. Clark, D. E., K. Panta, and B. N. Vo, "Data association and track management for the Gaussian mixture probability hypothesis density filter," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 45, No. 3, 1003-1016, 2009.

158. Georgescu, R. and P. Willett, "The GM-CPHD tracker applied to real and realistic multistatic sonar data sets," IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, Vol. 37, No. 2, 220-235, 2012.

159. Shibata, T. and W. Frei, "Hough transform for target detection in infrared imagery," Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 281, 105-109, 1981.

160. Carlson, B. D., E. D. Evans, and S. L. Wilson, "Search radar detection and track with the Hough transform, Part I: System concept," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 30, 102-108, 1994.

161. Choi, J. H. and A. R. Sarah, "Three-dimensional location estimation of trajectories of point targets using a projection-based transformation method," Optical Engineering, Vol. 34, No. 3, 933-939, 1995.

162. Moyer, L. R., J. Spak, and P. Lamanna, "A multi-dimensional hough transform-based track-before-detect technique for detecting weak targets in strong clutter backgrounds," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 47, No. 4, 3062-3068, 2011.

163. Blostein, S. D. and T. S. Huang, "Detecting small moving objects in image sequences using sequential hypothesis testing," IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, Vol. 39, No. 7, 1611-1629, 1991.

164. Blostein, S. D. and H. S. Richardson, "A sequential detection approach to target tracking," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 30, No. 1, 197-212, 1994.

165. Reed, I. S., R. M. Gagliardi, and H. M. Shao, "Application of three-dimensional filtering to moving target detection," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 19, No. 2, 898-905, 1983.

166. Reed, I. S., R. M. Gagliardi, and L. Stotts, "Optical moving target detection with 3-D matched filtering," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 24, No. 4, 327-336, 1988.

167. Reed, I. S., R. M. Gagliardi, and L. Stotts, "A recursive moving-target indication algorithm for optical image sequences," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 26, No. 3, 434-440, 1990.

168. Chen, Y., "On suboptimal detection of 3-dimensional moving targets," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 25, No. 3, 343-350, 1989.

169. Zhang, T., M. Li, Z. Zuo, W. Yang, and X. Sun, "Moving dim point target detection with three-dimensional wide-to-exact search directional filtering," Pattern Recognition Letters, Vol. 28, 246-253, 2007.

170. Liou, R. and M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi, "Dim target detection using high order correlation method," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 29, No. 3, 841-856, 1993.

171. Liou, R.-J. and M. R. Azimi-Sadjadi, "Multiple target detection using modified high order correlations," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 34, No. 2, 553-568, 1998.

172. Barniv, Y., "Dynamic programming solution for detecting dim moving targets," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 21, No. 1, 144-156, 1985.

173. Arnold, J., S. Shaw, and H. Pasternack, "Efficient target tracking using dynamic programming," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 29, 44-56, 1993.

174. Tonissen, S. M. and R. J. Evans, "Performance of dynamic programming techniques for track-before-detect," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 32, 1440-1451, Oct. 1996.

175. Tonissen, S. M. and Y. Bar-Shalom, "Maximum likelihood track before detect with fluctuating target amplitude," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 34, No. 3, 796-809, 1998.

176. Nichtern, O. and S. R. Rotman, "Point target tracking in a whitened IR sequence of images using dynamic programing approach," Proc. of SPIE, Electro-Optical and Infrared Systems: Technology and Applications III, Vol. 6395, 63950U, R. G. Driggers and D. A. Huckridge (eds.), 2006.

177. Nichtern, O. and S. R. Rotman, "Tracking of a point target in an IR sequence using dynamic programming approach," IEEE 24th Convention of Electrical and Electronics Engineers in Israel, 2006.

178. Buzzi, S., M. Lops, and L. Venturino, "Track-before-detect procedures for early detection of moving target from airbone radars," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 41, No. 3, 937-954, 2005.

179. Buzzi, S., et al., "Track-before-detect procedures in a multi-target environment," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 44, No. 3, 1150-1153, 2008.

180. Salmond, D. J. and H. Birch, "A particle filter for track before detect," Proceedings of the American Control Conference, Vol. 5, 3755-3760, Arlington, VA, Jun. 2001.

181. Boers, Y. and J. N. Driessen, "Particle filter based detection for tracking," Proceedings of the American Control Conference, 4393-4397, Arlington, VA, Jun. 2001.

182. Boers, Y., J. N. Driessen, F. Verschure, W. P. M. H. Heemels, and A. Juloski, "A multi target track before detect application," CVPR 2003: Proc. IEEE Computer Society Conf. on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, Madison, WI, USA, Jun. 2003.

183. Boers, Y. and H. Driessen, "A particle filter multi target track before detect application: Some special aspects," Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Information Fusion, Stockholm, Sweden, Jun. 2004.

184. Boers, Y. and H. Driessen, "Particle filter based track before detect algorithms," Proceedings of the SPIE Conference on Signal and Data Processing of Small Targets, Vol. 5204, 20-30, San Diego, CA, Aug. 2003.

185. Ristic, B., Detection and Tracking of Stealthy Targets. Beyond the Kalman Filter: Particles for Tracking Applications, Artech House, 2004.

186. Rutten, M., N. Gorden, and S. Maskell, "Efficient particle-based track-before-detect in Rayleigh noise," Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Information Fusion, Stockholm, Sweden, Jun. 28-Jul. 1, 2004.

187. Garcia-Fernandez, A. F., "Detection and tracking of multiple targets using wireless sensor networks,", Ph.D., Univ. Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain, 2011.

188. Garcia-Fernandez, A. F., J. Grajal, and M. R. Morelande, "Two-layer particle filter for multiple target detection and tracking," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 49, No. 3, 1569-1588, 2013.

189. Poiesi, F., R. Mazzon, and A. Cavallaro, "Multi-target tracking on confidence maps: An application to people tracking," Computer Vision and Image Understanding, Vol. 117, 1257-1272, 2013.

190. Mihaylova, L., A. Hegyi, A. Gning, and R. K. Boel, "Parallelized particle and Gaussian sum particle filters for large-scale freeway traffic systems," IEEE Trans. Intell. Transp. Syst., Vol. 13, No. 1, 36-48, 2012.

191. Morelande, M. R., C. M. Kreucher, and K. Kastella, "A Bayesian approach to multiple target detection and tracking," IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, Vol. 55, No. 5, 1589-1604, 2007.

192. Djuricc, P. M. and M. F. Bugallo, "Adaptive systems of particle filters," Conf. Rec. Asilomar Conf. on Signals, Syst. Comput., 59-64, 2012.

193. Musick, S., K. Kastella, and R. Mahler, "A practical implementation of joint multitarget probabilities," SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 3374, 26-37, 1998.

194. Kastella, K., "Joint multitarget probabilities for detection and tracking," Proc. SPIE Acquisition, Track. Point. XI, 122-128, Orlando, FL, 1997.

195. Kastella, K., "Event averaged maximum likelihood estimation and mean-field theory in multitarget tracking," IEEE Trans. Autom. Control, Vol. 50, No. 6, 1070-1073, Jun. 1995.

196. Kreucher, C., K. Kastella, A. O. Hero, and III, "Multitarget tracking using the joint multitarget probability density," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 41, No. 4, 1396-1414, 2005.

197. Kastella, K., "Discrimination gain for sensor management in multitarget detection and tracking," Proc. IMACS Conf. Computational Engineering Systems Applications, 167-172, Lille, France, 1996.

198. Kreucher, C. M., K. Kastella, and A. O. Hero, "Tracking multiple targets using a particle filter representation of the joint mulitarget probability density," Proc. SPIE Conf. Signal Data Processing of Small Targets, 258-269, 2003.

199. Blom, H. and E. Bloem, "Permutation invariance in Bayesian estimation of two targets that maneuver in and out formation flight," Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Information Fusion, 1296-1303, Seattle, WA, Jul. 6-9, 2009.

200. Habtemariam, B. K., R. Tharmarasa, and T. Kirubarajan, "PHD filter based track-before-detect for MIMO radars," Signal Processing, Vol. 92, 667-678, 2012.

201. Long, Y., H. Xu, W. An, and L. Liu, "Track-before-detect for infrared maneuvering dim multitarget via MM-PHD," Chinese Journal of Aeronautics, Vol. 25, 252-261, 2012.

202. Vo, B.-N., B.-T. Vo, N.-T. Pham, and D. Suter, "Joint detection and estimation of multiple objects from image observations," IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, Vol. 58, No. 10, 5129-5141, 2010.

203. Papi, F., V. Kyovtorov, R. Giuliani, F. Oliveri, and D. Tarchi, "Bernoulli filter for track-before-detect using MIMO radar," IEEE Signal Processing Letters, Vol. 21, No. 9, 1145-1149, 2014.

204. Wong, S., B. T. Vo, and F. Papi, "Bernoulli forward-backward smoothing for track-before-detect," IEEE Signal Processing Letters, Vol. 21, No. 6, 727-731, 2014.

205. Koch, J. W., "Bayesian approach to extended object and cluster tracking using random matrices," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 44, No. 3, 1042-1059, Jul. 2008.

206. Koch, J. W. and M. Feldmann, "Cluster tracking under kinematical constraints using random matrices," Robotics and Autonomous Systems, Vol. 57, No. 3, 296-309, Mar. 2009.

207. Granström, K., C. Lundquist, and U. Orguner, "Extended target tracking using a Gaussian mixture PHD filter," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 48, No. 4, 3268-3286, Oct. 2012.

208. Lian, F., C. Han, W. Liu, J. Liu, and J. Sun, "Unified cardinalized probability hypothesis density filters for extended targets and unresolved targets," Signal Processing, Vol. 92, No. 7, 1729-1744, 2012.

209. Lundquist, C., K. Granstrom, and U. Orguner, "An extended target CPHD filter and a Gamma Gaussian inverse wishart implementation," IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing, Vol. 7, No. 3, 472-483, 2013.

210. Vo, B.-T., D. Clark, B.-N. Vo, and B. Ristic, "Bernoulli forward-backward smoothing for joint target detection and tracking," IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, Vol. 59, No. 9, 4473-4477, 2011.

211. Ristic, B. and S. Arulampalam, "Bernoulli particle filter with observer control for bearings only tracking in clutter," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 48, No. 3, 2405-2415, 2012.

212. Chong, C.-Y., S. Mori, K.-C. Chang, and W. H. Barker, "Architectures and algorithms for track association and fusion," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 15, No. 1, 5-13, Jan. 2000.

213. Kreucher, C. and B. Shapo, "Multi-target detection and tracking using multisensor passive acoustic data," IEEE J. Ocean. Eng., Vol. 36, No. 2, 205-218, 2011.

214. Doucet, A., B. N. Vo, C. Andrieu, and M. Davy, "Particle filtering for multi-target tracking and sensor management," Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Information Fusion, 474-481, Jul. 2002.

215. Nannuru, S., M. Coates, and R. Mahler, "Computationally-tractable approximate PHD and CPHD filters for superpositional sensors," IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing, Vol. 7, No. 3, 410-420, 2013.


© Copyright 2010 EMW Publishing. All Rights Reserved