Progress In Electromagnetics Research B
ISSN: 1937-6472
Home | Search | Notification | Authors | Submission | PIERS Home | EM Academy
Home > Vol. 69 > pp. 137-155


By A. A. A. Abdelrehim and H. Ghafouri-Shiraz

Full Article PDF (1,807 KB)

In this paper, the left-handed metamaterial which acts as a lens is employed to improve the performance of a microstrip patch antenna. The left-handed metamaterial used in this work is a three-dimensional periodic structure which consists of circular split ring resonators and thin wires. The metamaterials three dimensional periodic structure shows angular independency characteristics in wide range angles, so it acts as a metamaterial lens. However, the MTM structure infinite periodicity truncation has no impacts on the MTM lens scattering, effective parameters and homogeneity. The left-handed metamaterial is placed in front of the microstrip patch antenna and due to the negative refractive index property of the left-handed metamaterial; the radiated electromagnetic beam size decreases which results in a highly focused beam. The proposed antenna has been designed and simulated using CST microwave studio, and the metamaterial effective parameters are extracted from the S parameters by using Nicolson-Ross-Weir algorithm and by selecting the appropriate ambiguity branch parameter. Furthermore, the angular independency of the metamaterial lens has been verified by rotating the metamaterial structure with respect to the excitation probe of the transverse electromagnetic waves and extracting the S-parameters and the effective parameters for each rotation angle. A parametric analysis has been performed to study the effects of the patch antenna and left-handed metamaterial lens separation and the size of the three dimensional left-handed metamaterial structure on the radiating properties and the impedance matching of the proposed antenna. For the experimental verification, the proposed antenna operating at 10 GHz is fabricated; the return loss, radiation pattern and gain for the proposed antenna with and without metamaterial are measured. Furthermore, the results show that the antenna gain is improved by 4.6 dB which validates the concept of beam focusing using negative refractive index metamaterial structure, while the return loss and bandwidth are slightly reduced. The simulation and experiment investigated the idea of the beam focusing using negative refractive index metamaterial lens in microwave regime.

A. A. A. Abdelrehim and H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "Performance improvement of patch antenna using circular split ring resonators and thin wires employing metamaterials lens," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 69, 137-155, 2016.

1. Collin, R., Field Theory of Guided Waves, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1960.

2. Gauthier, G., A. Courtay, and G. Rebeiz, "Microstrip antennas on synthesized low dielectric-constant substrates," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 45, No. 8, 1310-1314, 1997.

3. Colburn, J. and Y. Rahmat-Samii, "Patch antennas on externally perforated high dielectric constant substrates," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 47, No. 12, 1785-1794, 1999.

4. Kokotoff, D., R. Waterhouse, C. Birtcher, and J. Aberle, "Annular ring coupled circular patch with enhanced performance," Electron. Lett., Vol. 33, No. 24, 2000, 1997.

5. Rojas, R. and K. Lee, "Surface wave control using nonperiodic parasitic strips in printed antennas," IEE Proceedings --- Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 148, No. 1, 25, 2001.

6. Bhattacharyya, A., "Characteristics of space and surface waves in a multilayered structure (microstrip antennas)," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 40, No. 8, 1231-1240, 1990.

7. Jackson, D., J. Williams, A. Bhattacharyya, R. Smith, S. Buchheit, and S. Long, "Microstrip patch designs that do not excite surface waves," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 41, No. 8, 1026-1037, 1993.

8. Khayat, M., J. Williams, D. Jackson, and S. Long, "Mutual coupling between reduced surface-wave microstrip antennas," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 48, No. 10, 1581-1593, 2000.

9. Pendry, J., "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol. 85, No. 18, 4166-4169, 2000.

10. Weng, Z., N. Wang, Y. Jiao, and F. Zhang, "A directive patch antenna with metamaterial structure," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 49, No. 2, 456-459, 2006.

11. Liu, Y. and X. Zhao, "Enhanced patch antenna performances using dendritic structure metamaterials," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 51, No. 7, 1732-1740, 2009.

12. Smith, D., W. Padilla, D. Vier, S. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol. 84, No. 18, 4184-4187, 2000.

13. Smith, D. and N. Kroll, "Negative refractive index in left-handed materials," Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol. 85, No. 14, 2933-2936, 2000.

14. Shelby, R., "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science, Vol. 292, No. 5514, 77-79, 2001.

15. Grbic, A. and G. Eleftheriades, "Periodic analysis of a 2-D negative refractive index transmission line structure," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 51, No. 10, 2604-2611, 2003.

16. Chen, L., S. He, and L. Shen, "Finite-size effects of a left-handed material slab on the image quality," Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol. 92, No. 10, 2004.

17. Veselago, V. G., "The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ," Soviet Physics Uspekhi, Vol. 10, No. 4, 509, 1968.

18. Majid, H. A., M. K. Abd Rahim, and T. Masri, "Microstrip antenna's gain enhancement using left-handed metamaterial structure," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 8, 235-247, 2009.

19. Alici, K., F. Bilotti, L. Vegni, and E. Ozbay, "Optimization and tunability of deep subwavelength resonators for metamaterial applications: Complete enhanced transmission through a subwavelength aperture," Opt. Express, Vol. 17, No. 8, 5933, 2009.

20. Alici, K. and E. Ozbay, "Characterization and tilted response of a fishnet metamaterial operating at 100 GHz," Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol. 41, No. 13, 135011, 2008.

21. Gil, M., J. Bonache, J. Selga, J. Garcia-Garcia, and F. Martin, "High-pass filters implemented by composite right/left handed (CRLH) transmission lines based on complementary split rings resonators (CSRRs)," PIERS Online, Vol. 3, No. 3, 251-253, 2007.

22. Buell, K., H. Mosallaei, and K. Sarabandi, "A substrate for small patch antennas providing tunable miniaturization factors," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 54, No. 1, 135-146, 2006.

23. Alici, K. and E. Ozbay, "Electrically small split ring resonator antennas," J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 101, No. 8, 083104, 2007.

24. Alu, A., F. Bilotti, N. Engheta, and L. Vegni, "Subwavelength, compact, resonant patch antennas loaded with metamaterials," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 55, No. 1, 13-25, 2007.

25. Pirhadi, A., F. Keshmiri, M. Hakkak, and M. Tayarani, "Analysis and design of dual band high directive EBG resonator antenna using square loop FSS as superstrate layer," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 70, 1-20, 2007.

26. Lee, Y., J. Yeo, K. Ko, R. Mittra, Y. Lee, and W. Park, "A novel design technique for control of defect frequencies of an electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) superstrate for dual-band directivity enhancement," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 42, No. 1, 25-31, 2004.

27. Erentok, A., P. Luljak, and R. Ziolkowski, "Characterization of a volumetric metamaterial realization of an artificial magnetic conductor for antenna applications," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 53, No. 1, 160-172, 2005.

28. Burokur, S., M. Latrach, and S. Toutain, "Theoretical investigation of a circular patch antenna in the presence of a left-handed medium," Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 4, No. 1, 183-186, 2005.

29. Li, B., B. Wu, and C. H. Liang, "Study on high gain circular waveguide array antenna with metamaterial structure," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 60, 207-219, 2006.

30. Burghignoli, P., G. Lovat, F. Capolino, D. R. Jackson, and D. R. Wilton, "Directive leaky-wave radiation from a dipole source in a wire-medium slab," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 56, No. 5, 1329-1339, 2008.

31. El-Nawawy, M., A. A. Allam, and A. Korzec, "The design of a 0.35 THz microstrip patch antenna on LTCC substrate," Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1-4, 2011.

32. Turpin, J., J. Bossard, K. Morgan, D. Werner, and P. Werner, "Reconfigurable and tunable metamaterials: A review of the theory and applications," International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 2014, 1-18, 2014.

33. Vendik, I., O. Vendik, M. Odit, D. Kholodnyak, S. Zubko, M. Sitnikova, P. Turalchuk, K. Zemlyakov, I. Munina, D. Kozlov, V. Turgaliev, A. Ustinov, Y. Park, J. Kihm, and C.-W. Lee, "Tunable metamaterials for controlling THz radiation," IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology, Vol. 2, No. 5, 540-549, 2012.

34. Ziolkowski, R. W., "Metamaterial-based antennas: Research and developments," IEICE Transactions on Electronics, Vol. 89, No. 8, 1267-1275, 2006.

35. Enoch, S., G. Tayeb, P. Sabouroux, N. Guerin, and P. Vincent, "A metamaterial for directive emission," Physical Review Letters, Vol. 89, 213902, 2002.

36. Xu, H., Z. Zhao, Y. Lv, C. Du, and X. Luo, "Metamaterial superstrate and electromagnetic band-gap substrate for high directive antenna," Int. J. Infrared Milli. Waves, Vol. 29, 493-498, 2008.

37. Ju, J., D. kim, W. J. Lee, and J. I. Choi, "Wideband high-gain antenna using metamaterial superstrate with the zero refractive index," Microwave and Optical Tech. Lett., Vol. 51, No. 8, 1973-1976, 2009.

38. Temelkuaran, B., M. Bayindir, E. Ozbay, R. Biswas, M. Sigalas, G. Tuttle, and K. M. Ho, "Photonic crystal-based resonant antenna with a very high directivity," Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 87, 603-605, 2000.

39. Alu, A., F. Bilotti, N. Engheta, and L. Vegni, "Metamaterial covers over a small aperture," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 54, No. 6, 1632-1643, Jun. 2006.

40. Tang, M., S. Xiao, D.Wang, J. Xiong, K. Chen, and B. Wang, "Negative index of reflection in planar metamaterial composed of single split-ring resonators," Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society (ACES) Journal, Vol. 26, No. 3, 250-258, Mar. 2011.

41. Woodley, J., M. Wheeler, and M. Mojahedi, "Left-handed and right-handed metamaterials composed of split ring resonators and strip wires," Physical Review E, Vol. 71, No. 6, 2005.

42. Kamtongdee, C. and N. Wongkasem, "A novel design of compact 2.4 GHz microstrip antennas," IEEE 6th International Conference on Electrical Engineering/Electronics, Computer, Telecommunications and Information Technology, 2009, ECTI-CON 2009, Vol. 2, 766-769, May 2009.

43. Bancroft, R., Microstrip and printed antenna design, The Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2009.

44. Pues, H. and A. V Capelle, "Accurate transmission-line model for the rectangular microstrip antenna," Proc. IEEE, Vol. 131, No. 6, 334-340, Dec. 1984.

45. Chen, X., T. Grzegorczyk, B. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. Kong, "Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials," Physical Review E, Vol. 70, No. 1, 2004.

46. Arslanagic, S., T. V. Hansen, N. A. Mortensen, A. H. Gregersen, O. Sigmund, R. W. Ziolkowski, and O. Breinbjerg, "A review of the scattering-parameter extraction method with clarification of ambiguity issues in relation to metamaterial homogenization," IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, Vol. 55, No. 2, 91-106, 2013.

47. Nicolson, A. M. and G. F. Ross, "Measurement of the intrinsic properties of materials by time- domain techniques," IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 19, No. 4, 377-382, 1970.

48. Boughriet, A. H., C. Legrand, and A. Chapoton, "Noniterative stable transmission/reflection method for low-loss material complex permittivity determination," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 45, No. 1, 52-57, 1997.

49. Campione, S., S. Steshenko, M. Albani, and F. Capolino, "Complex modes and effective refractive index in 3D periodic arrays of plasmonic nanospheres," Optics Express, Vol. 19, No. 27, 26027-26043, 2011.

50. Hu, J., C. S. Yan, and Q. C. Lin, "A new patch antenna with metamaterial cover," Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A, Vol. 7, No. 1, 89-94, 2006.

51. Kurzweil-Segev, Y., M. Brodsky, A. Polsman, E. Safrai, Y. Feldman, S. Einav, and P. Ben Ishai, "Remote monitoring of phasic heart rate changes from the palm," IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology, Vol. 4, No. 5, 618-623, 2014.

52. Sun, M., Z. N. Chen, H. Tanoto, Q. Y. Wu, J. H. Teng, and S. B. Yeap, "Design of continuous- wave photomixer driven terahertz dipole lens antennas," APSIPA Annual Summit and Conference, 14-17, Dec. 2010.

© Copyright 2010 EMW Publishing. All Rights Reserved