PIER B
 
Progress In Electromagnetics Research B
ISSN: 1937-6472
Home | Search | Notification | Authors | Submission | PIERS Home | EM Academy
Home > Vol. 86 > pp. 1-18

BEAM-PATTERN ANALYSIS OF MULTI-BEAM HIGH PEAK POWER IR-UWB TRANSMITTER TAG FOR INDOOR POSITIONING AND TRACKING SYSTEM

By M. A. H. Ansari and C. L. Law

Full Article PDF (1,078 KB)

Abstract:
The precise positioning of an autonomous robot in the wireless sensor network with a high refresh rate is important for well-ordered and efficient systems. An orthogonally transmitted simultaneous multi-beam system improves the geometric dilution of precision (GDOP) and expedites the refresh rate of the system. In this paper, the beam-pattern analysis of an electronically steerable multi-beam impulse radio ultra-wideband (IR-UWB) transmitter tag is presented and demonstrated. The multi-beam transmitter tag is optimized to improve the real-time positioning accuracy of an autonomous robot for an indoor positioning and tracking system. Two linear arrays of four elements with an inter-element spacing of 18 cm and 10.2 cm are proposed and optimized. The array with spacing 10.2 cm is intentionally configured to produce orthogonal beams, which eventually provides better geometric dilution of precision. The beam steering-angle analysis is performed to better utilize the steering delay range and scanning angle range. The radiation intensity in the direction of the transmitted beam is calculated. Consequently, an intensity table for the Gaussian-modulated multi-cycle IR-UWB beamforming array is proposed. The intensity table gives an easier way to calculate the peak intensity and the number of cycles of the radiated IR-UWB pulse in the transmitted beam direction. The proposed beamforming transmitter arrays are observed to achieve the scanning range from -60˚ (-90˚) to +60˚ (+90˚) with a scanning resolution of 5˚ and 8˚ in the measurements.

Citation:
M. A. H. Ansari and C. L. Law, "Beam-Pattern Analysis of Multi-Beam High Peak Power IR-UWB Transmitter Tag for Indoor Positioning and Tracking System," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 86, 1-18, 2020.

References:
1. Zhang, J. Z. J., P. V. Orlik, Z. Sahinoglu, A. F. Molisch, and P. Kinney, "UWB systems for wireless sensor networks," Proc. IEEE, Vol. 97, No. 2, 313-331, 2009.
doi:10.1109/JPROC.2008.2008786

2. Siwiak, K. and D. McKeown, Ultra-wideband Radio Technology, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2004.
doi:10.1002/0470859334

3. Xu, Z., M. Luo, Z. Chen, H. Nie, and L. Yu, "Performance analysis of pulse generators for UWB-based sensor networks," International Conference on Communications and Mobile Computing, 466-470, 2009.

4. Eryildirim, A. and M. B. Guldogan, "A Bernoulli filter for extended target tracking using random matrices in a UWB sensor network," IEEE Sens. J., Vol. 16, No. 11, 4362-4373, 2016.
doi:10.1109/JSEN.2016.2544807

5. Norimatsu, T., et al., "A UWB-IR transmitter with digitally controlled pulse generator," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 42, No. 6, 1300-1309, 2007.
doi:10.1109/JSSC.2007.897137

6. F. C. Commission, "Revision of Part 15 of the Commission’s rules regarding ultra-wideband transmission systems,", Washington, D.C. 20554, 2002.

7. Fontana, R. J. and E. A. Richley, "Observations on low data rate, short pulse UWB systems," IEEE International Conference on Ultra-Wideband, 334-338, 2007.

8. Krebesz, T. I., G. Kolumban, C. K. Tse, F. C. M. Lau, and H. Dong, "Use of UWB impulse radio technology in in-car communications: Power limits and optimization," IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., Vol. 66, No. 7, 6037-6049, 2017.
doi:10.1109/TVT.2017.2647849

9. Farid, Z., R. Nordin, and M. Ismail, "Recent advances in wireless indoor localization techniques and system," J. Comput. Networks Commun., Vol. 2013, No. 185138, 1-12, 2013.
doi:10.1155/2013/185138

10. Yassin, A., et al., "Recent advances in indoor localization: a survey on theoretical approaches and applications," IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, Vol. 19, No. 2, 1327-1346, 2017.
doi:10.1109/COMST.2016.2632427

11. Xia, J. J., C. L. Law, K. S. Koh, Y. Zhou, and C. Fang, "A 3–5GHz impulse radio UWB transceiver IC optimized for precision localization at longer ranges," IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest, 169-172, 2010.

12. Mahbub, I., S. K. Islam, and A. Fathy, "Impulse radio ultra-wideband (IR-UWB) transmitter for low power low data rate biomedical sensor applications," IEEE Topical Conference on Biomedical Wireless Technologies, Networks, and Sensing Systems, 88-90, 2016.

13. Chia, M. Y. W., S. W. Leong, C. K. Sim, and K. M. Chan, "Through-wall UWB radar operating within FCC's mask for sensing heart beat and breathing rate," 2nd European Radar Conference (EURAD), 283-286, 2005.

14. Lazaro, A., D. Girbau, and R. Villarino, "Analysis of vital sings monitoring using an IR-UWB radar," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 100, 265-284, 2010.
doi:10.2528/PIER09120302

15. Schleicher, B., et al., "IR-UWB radar demonstrator for ultra-fine movement detection and vital-sign monitoring," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., Vol. 61, No. 5, 2076-2085, 2013.
doi:10.1109/TMTT.2013.2252185

16. Nikookar, H. and R. Prasad, Introduction to Ultra Wideband for Wireless Communications, Springer Science Business Media B.V., 2009.

17. Lampe, L. and K. Witrisal, "Challenges and recent advances in IR-UWB system design," IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS), 3288-3291, 2010.

18. Silva, B. and G. P. Hancke, "IR-UWB-based non-line-of-sight identification in harsh environments: Principles and challenges," IEEE Trans. Ind. Informatics, Vol. 12, No. 3, 1188-1195, 2016.
doi:10.1109/TII.2016.2554522

19. Silva, B. J. and G. P. Hancke, "Practical challenges of IR-UWB based ranging in harsh industrial environments," IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics, 618-623, 2015.

20. Leucci, G., "Ground penetrating radar: The electromagnetic signal attenuation and maximum penetration depth," Sch. Res. Exch., Vol. 2008, No. 926091, 1-7, 2008.

21. Eltaher, A. and T. Kaiser, "A novel approach based on UWB beamforming for indoor positioning in none-line-of-sight environments," RadioTeCc, 1-5, 2005.

22. Ansari, M. A. H., M. Sharma, and C. L. Law, "High peak power UWB-RFID transmitter tag for long range applications," 2017 Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium — Fall (PIERS — FALL), 2045-2050, Singapore, November 19–22, 2017.

23. Neirynck, D., M. O. Duinn, and C. Mcelroy, "Characterisation of the NLOS performance of an IEEE 802.15.4a receiver," 12th Workshop on Navigation, Positioning and Communications, 1-4, 2015.

24. Staderini, E. M., "UWB radar in medicine," IEEE AESS Systems Magazine, 13-18, 2002.
doi:10.1109/62.978359

25. Law, C. L., et al., "An ultra-wideband localization system for concrete debris tracking," Asia Pacific Microwave Conference, 265-268, 2009.

26. Chandrakasan, A. P., et al., "Low-power impulse UWB architectures and circuits," Proc. IEEE, Vol. 97, No. 2, 332-352, 2009.
doi:10.1109/JPROC.2008.2008787

27. Xia, J., C. L. Law, Y. Zhou, and K. S. Koh, "3–5 GHz UWB impulse radio transmitter and receiver MMIC optimized for long range precision wireless sensor networks," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., Vol. 58, No. 12, 4040-4051, 2010.

28. Bourdel, S., et al., "A 9-pJ/pulse 1.42-Vpp OOK CMOS UWB pulse generator for the 3.1–10.6-GHz FCC band," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., Vol. 58, No. 1, 65-73, 2010.
doi:10.1109/TMTT.2009.2035959

29. Kang, J., S. Rao, P. Chiang, and A. Natarajan, "Design and optimization of area-constrained wirelessly powered CMOS UWB SoC for localization applications," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., Vol. 64, No. 4, 1042-1054, 2016.
doi:10.1109/TMTT.2016.2536663

30. Wang, K., B. Li, M. J. Zhao, and Z. H. Wu, "Low-power implantable CMOS bipolar Gaussian monocycle pulse generator," Electron. Lett., Vol. 53, No. 3, 201-203, 2017.
doi:10.1049/el.2016.3717

31. Dupleich, D., et al., "Directional characterization of the 60 GHz indoor-office channel," 31th URSI General Assembly and Scientific Symposium, URSI GASS, 14-17, 2014.

32. Chia, M. Y. W., T. H. Lim, J. K. Yin, P. Y. Chee, S. W. Leong, and C. K. Sim, "Electronic beam-steering design for UWB phased array," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., Vol. 54, No. 6, 2431-2438, 2006.

33. Delay, V., Y. L. Wang, and C. H. Heng, "3–5 GHz 4-channel UWB beamforming transmitter with 1o scanning resolution through calibrated vernier delay line in 0.13-μm CMOS," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 47, No. 12, 3145-3159, 2012.

34. Safarian, Z., T. S. Chu, and H. Hashemi, "A 0.13 μm CMOS 4-channel UWB timed array transmitter chipset with sub-200 ps switches and all-digital timing circuitry," IEEE Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits Symposium, 601-604, 2008.

35. Natarajan, A., A. Komijani, and A. Hajimiri, "A fully integrated 24-GHz phased-array transmitter in CMOS," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 40, No. 12, 2502-2513, 2005.

36. Roderick, J., H. Krishnaswamy, K. Newton, and H. Hashemi, "Silicon-based ultra-wideband beam-forming," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 41, No. 8, 1726-1739, 2006.

37. Lai, C., K. Tan, Y. Chen, and T.-S. Chu, "A UWB impulse-radio timed-array radar with time-shifted direct-sampling architecture in 0.18-μm CMOS," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I Regul. Pap., Vol. 61, No. 7, 2074-2087, 2014.

38. Janky, J. M., K. A. I. Sharp, M. V. McCusker, and M. Ulman, Indoor navigation via multi-beam laser projection, United States Patent (US 20140285631A1), 2014.

39. Sharp, I., K. Yu, and Y. J. Guo, "GDOP analysis for positioning system design," IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., Vol. 58, No. 7, 3371-3382, 2009.

40. Feng, G., C. Shen, C. Long, and F. Dong, "GDOP index in UWB indoor location system experiment," IEEE Sensors, 1-4, 2015.

41. Niu, R. and P. K. Varshney, "Joint detection and localization in sensor networks based on local decisions," Conf. Rec. — Asilomar Conf. Signals, Syst. Comput., No. 2, 525-529, 2006.

42. Ciuonzo, D. and P. Salvo Rossi, "Distributed detection of a non-cooperative target via generalized locally-optimum approaches," Inf. Fusion, Vol. 36, 261-274, 2017.

43. Ciuonzo, D. and P. Salvo Rossi, "Quantizer design for generalized locally optimum detectors in wireless sensor networks," IEEE Wirel. Commun. Lett., Vol. 7, No. 2, 162-165, 2018.

44. Gu, Y., A. Lo, S. Member, and I. Niemegeers, "Wireless personal networks," Communications, Vol. 11, No. 1, 13-32, 2009.

45. Ciuonzo, D., "On time-reversal imaging by statistical testing," IEEE Signal Process. Lett., Vol. 24, No. 7, 1024-1028, 2017.

46. Indoor path loss, Apllication note: Digi International, 2012, [online], available: http://ftp1.digi.com/support/images/XST-AN005a-IndoorPathLoss.pdf.

47. Ansari, M. A. H. and C. L. Law, "Beamforming UWB-IR transmitter for NLOS indoor positioning and tracking application," IEEE MTT-S International Wireless Symposium (IWS), 1-4, 2018.

48. Oshiga, O., X. Chu, Y. Leung, and J. Ng, "Anchor selection for localization in large indoor venues," 2018 IEEE/ACM 26th International Symposium on Quality of Service (IWQoS), 1-6, 2018.

49. Langley, R. B., "Dilution of precision," GPS World, Vol. 5, No. 10, 52-68, 1999.

50. Liao, C., P. Hsu, and D. Chang, "Energy patterns of UWB antenna arrays with scan capability," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 59, No. 4, 1140-1147, 2011.

51. Hussain, M. G. M., "Principles of space-time array processing for ultrawide-band impulse radar and radio communications," IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., Vol. 51, No. 3, 393-403, 2002.

52. Ries, S. and T. Kaiser, "Ultra wideband impulse beamforming: It is a different world," Signal Processing, Vol. 86, No. 9, 2198-2207, 2006.

53. Ghavami, M., L. B.Michael, and R. Kohno, Ultra Wideband Signals and Systems in Communication Engineering, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2004.


© Copyright 2010 EMW Publishing. All Rights Reserved