Vol. 89

Front:[PDF file] Back:[PDF file]
Latest Volume
All Volumes
All Issues
2020-09-25

Recent Advances in Wearable Antenna Technologies: a Review

By Sarmad Nozad Mahmood, Asnor Juraiza Ishak, Tale Saeidi, Hussein Alsariera, Sameer Alani, Alyani Ismail, and Azura Che Soh
Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 89, 1-27, 2020
doi:10.2528/PIERB20071803

Abstract

Wearable antennas have received a great deal of popularity in recent years owing to their enticing characteristics and opportunities to realize lightweight, compact, low-cost, and versatile wireless communications and environments. These antennas must be conformal, and they must be built using lightweight materials and constructed in a low-profile configuration when mounted on various areas of the human body. These antennas ought to be able to function close to the human body with limited deterioration. These criteria render the layout of wearable antennas demanding, particularly when considering factors such as investigating the usability of textile substrates, high conductive materials during fabrication processes, and the effect of body binding scenarios on the performance of the design. Although there are minor differences in magnitude based on the implementations, several of these problems occur in the body-worn deployment sense. This study addresses the numerous problems and obstacles in the production of wearable antennas, their variety of materials, and the techniques of manufacturing alongside with bending scheme. This is accompanied by a summary of creative features and their respective approaches to address these problems recently raised by work in this area by the science community.

Citation


Sarmad Nozad Mahmood, Asnor Juraiza Ishak, Tale Saeidi, Hussein Alsariera, Sameer Alani, Alyani Ismail, and Azura Che Soh, "Recent Advances in Wearable Antenna Technologies: a Review," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 89, 1-27, 2020.
doi:10.2528/PIERB20071803
http://www.jpier.org/PIERB/pier.php?paper=20071803

References


    1. Paracha, K. N., et al., "Wearable antennas: A review of materials, structures, and innovative features for autonomous communication and sensing," IEEE Access, Vol. 7, 56694-56712, 2019.
    doi:10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2909146

    2. Bhattacharyya, S., et al., Handbook of Research on Recent Developments in Intelligent Communication Application, IGI Global, 2016.

    3. Chan, M., et al., "Smart wearable systems: Current status and future challenges," Artificial Intelligence in Medicine, Vol. 56, No. 3, 137-156, 2012.
    doi:10.1016/j.artmed.2012.09.003

    4. Hu, J., "Overview of flexible electronics from ITRI’s viewpoint," 2010 28th VLSI Test Symposium (VTS), IEEE, 2010.

    5. Werner, D. H. and Z. H. Jiang, Electromagnetics of Body Area Networks: Antennas, Propagation, and RF Systems, John Wiley & Sons, 2016.
    doi:10.1002/9781119082910

    6. Patel, M. and J. Wang, "Applications, challenges, and prospective in emerging body area networking technologies," IEEE Wireless Communications, Vol. 17, No. 1, 80-88, 2010.
    doi:10.1109/MWC.2010.5416354

    7. Ali, S. M., et al., "Design of dual-band wearable crescent-shaped button antenna for WLAN applications," Intelligent Computing and Innovation on Data Science, 457-464, Springer, 2020.
    doi:10.1007/978-981-15-3284-9_52

    8. Seyedi, M., et al., "A survey on intrabody communications for body area network applications," IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, Vol. 60, No. 8, 2067-2079, 2013.
    doi:10.1109/TBME.2013.2254714

    9. Wang, D., M. Ghosh, and D. Smith, "Medical Body Area Network (MBAN) with key-based control of spectrum usage,", Google Patents, 2017.

    10. Hertleer, C., et al., "A textile antenna for off-body communication integrated into protective clothing for firefighters," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 57, No. 4, 919-925, 2009.
    doi:10.1109/TAP.2009.2014574

    11. Wu, J.-W., et al., "Dual broadband design of rectangular slot antenna for 2.4 and 5 GHz wireless communication," Electronics Letters, Vol. 40, No. 23, 1461-1463, 2004.
    doi:10.1049/el:20046873

    12. Raj, R. K., et al., "A new compact microstrip-fed dual-band coplanar antenna for WLAN applications," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 54, No. 12, 3755-3762, 2006.
    doi:10.1109/TAP.2006.886505

    13. Sopa, P. and P. Rakluea, "The hexagonal shaped UWB wearable textile antenna with band-notched characteristics," 2020 8th International Electrical Engineering Congress (iEECON), IEEE, 2020.

    14. Garg, R., et al., Microstrip Antenna Design Handbook, Artech House, 2001.

    15. Ma, L., R. Edwards, and S. Bashir, "A wearable monopole antenna for ultra wideband with notching function,", 2008.

    16. Yan, S., P. J. Soh, and G. A. Vandenbosch, "Compact all-textile dual-band antenna loaded with metamaterial-inspired structure," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 14, 1486-1489, 2014.

    17. Ashyap, A. Y., et al., "Compact and low-profile textile EBG-based antenna for wearable medical applications," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 16, 2550-2553, 2017.
    doi:10.1109/LAWP.2017.2732355

    18. Ashyap, A. Y., et al., "Robust low-profile electromagnetic band-gap-based on textile wearable antennas for medical application," 2017 International Workshop on Antenna Technology: Small Antennas, Innovative Structures, and Applications (iWAT), IEEE, 2017.

    19. Salonen, P., Y. Rahmat-Samii, and M. Kivikoski, "Wearable antennas in the vicinity of human body," IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society Symposium, 2004, IEEE, 2004.

    20. Zhu, S. and R. Langley, "Dual-band wearable antennas over EBG substrate," Electronics Letters, Vol. 43, No. 3, 141-142, 2007.
    doi:10.1049/el:20073151

    21. Liu, F.-X., et al., "Wearable applications of quarter-wave patch and half-mode cavity antennas," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 14, 1478-1481, 2014.

    22. Liu, Y., et al., "An improved design of wearable strain sensor based on knitted RFID technology," 2016 IEEE Conference on Antenna Measurements & Applications (CAMA), IEEE, 2016.

    23. Gupta, B., S. Sankaralingam, and S. Dhar, "Development of wearable and implantable antennas in the last decade: A review," 2010 10th Mediterranean Microwave Symposium, IEEE, 2010.

    24. George, G., et al., "Design of meander line wearable antenna," 2013 IEEE Conference on Information & Communication Technologies, IEEE, 2013.

    25. Kaufmann, T., et al., "Efficiency of a compact elliptical planar ultra-wideband antenna based on conductive polymers," International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 2012, 2012.

    26. Reyes-Vera, E., M. Arias-Correa, A. Giraldo-Muno, D. Catano-Ochoa, and J. Santa-Marin, "Development of an improved response ultra-wideband antenna based on conductive adhesive of carbon composite," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 79, 199-208, 2017.

    27. Hwang, J.-N. and F.-C. Chen, "Reduction of the peak SAR in the human head with metamaterials," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 54, No. 12, 3763-3770, 2006.

    28. Shirakawa, H., et al., "Synthesis of electrically conducting organic polymers: Halogen derivatives of polyacetylene, (CH) x," Journal of the Chemical Society, Chemical Communications, Vol. 16, 578-580, 1977.

    29. Jayabharathy, K. and T. Shanmuganantham, "Design of a compact textile wideband antenna for smart clothing," 2019 2nd International Conference on Intelligent Computing, Instrumentation and Control Technologies (ICICICT), IEEE, 2019.

    30. Klemm, M. and G. Troester, "Textile UWB antennas for wireless body area networks," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and propagation, Vol. 54, No. 11, 3192-3197, 2006.

    31. Kennedy, T. F., et al., "Body-worn E-textile antennas: The good, the low-mass, and the conformal," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 57, No. 4, 910-918, 2009.

    32. Bai, Q. and R. Langley, "Crumpling of PIFA textile antenna," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 60, No. 1, 63-70, 2011.

    33. Lilja, J., et al., "Design and manufacturing of robust textile antennas for harsh environments," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 60, No. 9, 4130-4140, 2012.

    34. Huang, J. S., et al., "A novel textile antenna using composite multifilament conductive threads for smart clothing applications," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 58, No. 5, 1232-1236, 2016.

    35. Xiaomu, H., S. Yan, and G. A. Vandenbosch, "Wearable button antenna for dual-band WLAN applications with combined on and off-body radiation patterns," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 65, No. 3, 1384-1387, 2017.

    36. Ouyang, Y. and W. J. Chappell, "High frequency properties of electro-textiles for wearable antenna applications," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 56, No. 2, 381-389, 2008.

    37. Mohan, D. and C. Suriyakala, "Ergonomics of textile antenna for body centric wireless networks for UWB application," 2017 International Conference on Circuit, Power and Computing Technologies (ICCPCT), IEEE, 2017.

    38. Al-Sehemi, A. G., et al., "Flexible and small wearable antenna for wireless body area network applications," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 31, No. 11–12, 1063-1082, 2017.

    39. Oni, M. A. I. and M. T. Ali, "Design of a compact, low-profile, elliptical patch UWB antenna and performance analysis in vicinity of human layered tissue model for wireless body area network (WBAN) applications," International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies, Vol. 8, No. 4, 1770, 2014.

    40. Yang, H.-L., W. Yao, Y. Yi, X. Huang, S. Wu, and B. Xiao, "A dual-band low-profile metasurface-enabled wearable antenna for WLAN devices," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 61, 115-125, 2016.

    41. Yan, S., et al., "On-body performance of wearable UWB textile antenna with full ground plane," 2016 10th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP), IEEE, 2016.

    42. Turkmen, M. and H. Yalduz, "Design and performance analysis of a flexible UWB wearable textile antenna on jeans substrate," International Journal of Information and Electronics Engineering, Vol. 8, No. 2, 15-18, 2018.

    43. Wang, K.-H. and J.-S. Li, "Jeans textile antenna for smart wearable antenna," 2018 12th International Symposium on Antennas, Propagation and EM Theory (ISAPE), IEEE, 2018.

    44. Li, S.-H. and J.-S. Li, "Smart patch wearable antenna on Jeans textile for body wireless communication," 2018 12th International Symposium on Antennas, Propagation and EM Theory (ISAPE), IEEE, 2018.

    45. Osman, M. A., et al., "Design and analysis UWB wearable textile antenna," Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EUCAP), IEEE, 2011.

    46. Amit, S., V. Talasila, and P. Shastry, "A semi-circular slot textile antenna for ultrawideband applications," 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation and USNCURSI Radio Science Meeting, IEEE, 2019.

    47. Chandra, R., et al., "On the opportunities and challenges in microwave medical sensing and imaging," IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, Vol. 62, No. 7, 1667-1682, 2015.

    48. Saeidi, T., et al., "Equivalent Circuit (EC) approximation of miniaturized elliptical UWB antenna for imaging of wood," Intelligent Computing and Innovation on Data Science, 447-455, Springer, 2020.

    49. Alani, S., Z. Zakaria, and A. Ahmad, "Miniaturized UWB elliptical patch antenna for skin cancer diagnosis imaging," International Journal of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Vol. 10, 2088-8708, 2020.

    50. Mohammed, B. J., et al., "Microwave system for head imaging," IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 63, No. 1, 117-123, 2013.

    51. Meaney, P. M., et al., "Microwave imaging for neoadjuvant chemotherapy monitoring: Initial clinical experience," Breast Cancer Research, Vol. 15, No. 2, R35, 2013.

    52. Fear, E. C., et al., "Confocal microwave imaging for breast cancer detection: Localization of tumors in three dimensions," IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, Vol. 49, No. 8, 812-822, 2002.

    53. Klemm, M., et al., "Radar-based breast cancer detection using a hemispherical antenna array — Experimental results," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 57, No. 6, 1692-1704, 2009.

    54. Golnabi, A. H., et al., "Microwave tomography for bone imaging," 2011 IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging: From Nano to Macro, IEEE, 2011.

    55. Chandra, R., et al., "A microwave imaging-based technique to localize an in-body RF source for biomedical applications," IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, Vol. 62, No. 5, 1231-1241, 2014.

    56. Augustine, R., et al., "Microwave reflectivity analysis of bone mineral density using ultra wide band antenna," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 59, No. 1, 21-26, 2017.

    57. Lin, X., et al., "Ultra-wideband textile antenna for wearable microwave medical imaging applications," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 68, No. 6, 4238-4249, 2020.

    58. Abbas, A., et al., "A rectangular notch-band UWB antenna with controllable notched bandwidth and centre frequency," Sensors, Vol. 20, No. 3, 777, 2020.

    59. El Gharbi, M., et al., "A novel ultra-wide band wearable antenna under different bending conditions for electronic-textile applications," The Journal of The Textile Institute, 1-7, 2020.

    60. Di Natale, A. and E. Di Giampaolo, "A reconfigurable all-textile wearable UWB antenna," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 103, 31-43, 2020.

    61. Kong, Y., Y. Li, and K. Yu, "A minimized MIMO-UWB antenna with high isolation and triple band-notched functions," Frequenz, Vol. 70, No. 11–12, 463-471, 2016.

    62. Kong, Y., et al., "A quadruple band-notched UWB antenna by using arc-shaped slot and rotated E-shaped resonator," Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society Journal, Vol. 31, No. 11, 2016.

    63. Li, Y., W. Zhang, and W. Yu, "A circular slot UWB antenna with independently tunable quad-band filtering characteristics," Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society Journal, Vol. 30, No. 10, 2015.

    64. Li, Y., W. Li, and Q. Ye, "A reconfigurable triple-notch-band antenna integrated with defected microstrip structure band-stop filter for ultra-wideband cognitive radio applications," International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 2013, 2013.

    65. Li, Y., W. Li, and W. Yu, "A multi-band/UWB MIMO/diversity antenna with an enhance isolation using radial stub loaded resonator," Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society Journal, Vol. 28, No. 1, 8-20, 2013.

    66. Li, Y., W. Li, and W. Yu, "A switchable UWB slot antenna using SIS-HSIR and SIS-SIR for multi-mode wireless communications applications," ACES Journal — Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society, Vol. 27, No. 4, 340, 2012.

    67. Mohandoss, S., et al., "On the bending and time domain analysis of compact wideband flexible monopole antennas," AEU — International Journal of Electronics and Communications, Vol. 101, 168-181, 2019.

    68. Kumari, S. and V. R. Gupta, "Measurement of specific absorption rate of monopole patch antenna on human arm," International Journal of Microwave and Optical Technology, Vol. 10, No. 3, 190-194, 2015.

    69. Elias, N., et al., "The effects of human body and bending on dipole textile antenna performance and SAR," 2012 Asia Pacific Microwave Conference Proceedings, IEEE, 2012.

    70. Bala, R., et al., "Wearable graphene based curved patch antenna for medical telemetry applications," Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society Journal, Vol. 31, No. 5, 2016.

    71. Liu, J., et al., "Bending effects on a flexible Yagi-Uda antenna for wireless body area network," 2016 Asia-Pacific International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility (APEMC), IEEE, 2016.

    72. Cavallari, R., et al., "A survey on wireless body area networks: Technologies and design challenges," IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, Vol. 16, No. 3, 1635-1657, 2014.

    73. Ferreira, D., et al., "Wearable textile antennas: Examining the effect of bending on their performance," IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, Vol. 59, No. 3, 54-59, 2017.

    74. Alsariera, H., et al., "Simple broadband circularly polarized monopole antenna with two asymmetrically connected U-shaped parasitic strips and defective ground plane," Telkomnika, Vol. 18, No. 3, 1169-1175, 2020.

    75. Dey, S., N. Saha, and S. Biswas, "Design and performance analysis of UWB circular disc monopole textile antenna and bending consequences," Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EUCAP), IEEE, 2011.

    76. Kim, J. and H. Lee, "Low specific absorption rate wearable antenna forWLAN band applications," Proceedings of the Fourth European Conference on Antennas and Propagation, IEEE, 2010.

    77. Bai, Q. and R. Langley, "Wearable EBG antenna bending and crumpling," 2009 Loughborough Antennas & Propagation Conference, IEEE, 2009.

    78. Amaro, N., C. Mendes, and P. Pinho, "Bending effects on a textile microstrip antenna," 2011 IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation (APSURSI), IEEE, 2011.

    79. Isa, M., et al., "Textile dual band circular ring patch antenna under bending condition," Journal of Telecommunication, Electronic and Computer Engineering (JTEC), Vol. 9, No. 3, 37-43, 2017.

    80. Hall, P. S. and Y. Hao, Antennas and Propagation for Body-centric Wireless Communications, Artech House, 2012.

    81. Astrin, A., "IEEE standard for local and metropolitan area networks part 15.6: Wireless body area networks: IEEE std 802.15. 6-2012,", the document is available at IEEE Xplore, Vol. 550, 2012.

    82. El Hajj, W., C. Person, and J. Wiart, "A novel investigation of a broadband integrated inverted-F antenna design; application for wearable antenna," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 62, No. 7, 3843-3846, 2014.

    83. Mandal, B. and S. Parui, "Wearable tri-band SIWbased antenna on leather substrate," Electronics Letters, Vol. 51, No. 20, 1563-1564, 2015.

    84. Lee, C. M., et al., "A flexible and transparent antenna on a polyamide substrate for laptop computers," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 57, No. 5, 1038-1042, 2015.

    85. Mersani, A., L. Osman, and J.-M. Ribero, "Flexible UWB AMC antenna for early stage skin cancer identification," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 80, 71-81, 2019.

    86. Rais, N. H. M., et al., "Dual-band suspended-plate wearable textile antenna," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 12, 583-586, 2013.

    87. Whittow, W. G., et al., "Inkjet-printed microstrip patch antennas realized on textile for wearable applications," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 13, 71-74, 2014.

    88. Chen, S. J. and C. Fumeaux, "Wearable antennas based on graphite paper and conductive polymer,", 2018.

    89. Sabban, A., "Small wearable antennas for wireless communication and medical systems," 2018 IEEE Radio and Wireless Symposium (RWS), IEEE, 2018.

    90. Li, W.-Y., et al., "Conformai integrated multi-layer thin-film antenna by novel LITA technologies for smartwatch wearable device applications," 2016 International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation (ISAP), IEEE, 2016.

    91. Seman, F. C., F. Ramadhan, N. S. Ishak, R. Yuwono, Z. Z. Abidin, S. H. Dahlan, S. M. Shah, and A. Y. I. Ashyap, "Performance evaluation of a star-shaped patch antenna on polyimide film under various bending conditions," Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 85, 125-130, 2019.

    92. Gupta, N. P., M. Kumar, and R. Maheshwari, "Development and performance analysis of conformal UWB wearable antenna under various bending radii," IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, IOP Publishing, 2019.

    93. Yin, B., J. Gu, X. Feng, B. Wang, Y. Yu, and W. Ruan, "A low SAR value wearable antenna for wireless body area network based on AMC structure," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 95, 119-129, 2019.

    94. Ismail, M. F., et al., "Bending analysis on circular polarization array textile antenna," 2014 IEEE Asia-Pacific Conference on Applied Electromagnetics (APACE), IEEE, 2014.

    95. Kim, S., et al., "Monopole antenna with inkjet-printed EBG array on paper substrate for wearable applications," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 11, 663-666, 2012.

    96. Bayram, Y., et al., "E-textile conductors and polymer composites for conformal lightweight antennas," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 58, No. 8, 2732-2736, 2010.

    97. Chen, S. J., et al., "A modular textile antenna design using snap-on buttons for wearable applications," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 64, No. 3, 894-903, 2016.

    98. Wang, Z., et al., "Embroidered multiband body-worn antenna for GSM/PCS/WLAN communications," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 62, No. 6, 3321-3329, 2014.

    99. Kiourti, A., et al., "UWB antennas on conductive textiles," 2016 IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation (APSURSI), IEEE, 2016.

    100. Koulouridis, S., et al., "Polymer-ceramic composites for microwave applications: Fabrication and performance assessment," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 54, No. 12, 4202-4208, 2006.

    101. Zhou, Y., et al., "Polymer-carbon nanotube sheets for conformal load bearing antennas," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 58, No. 7, 2169-2175, 2010.

    102. Simorangkir, R. B., et al., "Dual-band dual-mode textile antenna on PDMS substrate for body-centric communications," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 16, 677-680, 2016.

    103. Song, L., et al., "Stretchable and reversibly deformable radio frequency antennas based on silver nanowires," ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, Vol. 6, No. 6, 4248-4253, 2014.

    104. Huang, X., et al., "Highly flexible and conductive printed graphene for wireless wearable communications applications," Scientific Reports, Vol. 5, 18298, 2015.

    105. Johnston, I., et al., "Mechanical characterization of bulk Sylgard 184 for microfluidics and microengineering," Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, Vol. 24, No. 3, 035017, 2014.

    106. Sebastian, M. and L. Namitha, "Rubber-ceramic composites," Microwave Materials and Applications 2V Set, 537-574, Wiley, 2017.

    107. Kumar, G. and K. P. Ray, Broadband Microstrip Antennas, Artech House, 2003.

    108. Massey, P., "Mobile phone fabric antennas integrated within clothing," Eleventh International Conference on Antennas and Propagation, 2001, (IEE Conf. Publ. No. 480), Vol. 1, 2001.

    109. Salonen, P., M. Keskilammi, and L. Sydanheimo, "A low-cost 2.45 GHz photonic band-gap patch antenna for wearable systems," Eleventh International Conference on Antennas and Propagation, 2001, (IEE Conf. Publ. No. 480), Vol. 2, 2001.

    110. Tronquo, A., et al., "Robust planar textile antenna for wireless body LANs operating in 2.45 GHz ISM band," Electronics Letters, Vol. 42, No. 3, 142-143, 2006.

    111. Gangopadhyay, S., et al., "Design and development of electro-conductive rectangular textile antenna using polypropylene fabric," 2017 4th IEEE Uttar Pradesh Section International Conference on Electrical, Computer and Electronics (UPCON), IEEE, 2017.

    112. Yan, S. and G. A. Vandenbosch, "Radiation pattern-reconfigurable wearable antenna based on metamaterial structure," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 15, 1715-1718, 2016.

    113. Saeed, S. M., C. A. Balanis, and C. R. Birtcher, "Inkjet-printed flexible reconfigurable antenna for conformal WLAN/WiMAX wireless devices," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 15, 1979-1982, 2016.

    114. Mazlouman, S. J., et al., "A reconfigurable patch antenna using liquid metal embedded in a silicone substrate," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 59, No. 12, 4406-4412, 2011.

    115. Simorangkir, R. B., et al., "A method to realize robust flexible electronically tunable antennas using polymer-embedded conductive fabric," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 66, No. 1, 50-58, 2017.

    116. Simorangkir, R. B., A. Kiourti, and K. P. Esselle, "UWB wearable antenna with a full ground plane based on PDMS-embedded conductive fabric," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 17, No. 3, 493-496, 2018.

    117. Simorangkir, R. B., Y. Yang, and K. P. Esselle, "Robust implementation of flexible wearable antennas with PDMS-embedded conductive fabric,", 2018.

    118. Baytore, C., et al., "Coplanar flexible antenna design using conductive silver nano ink on paper substrate for wearable antenna applications," 2018 28th International Conference Radioelektronika (RADIOELEKTRONIKA), IEEE, 2018.

    119. Simorangkir, R. B., et al., "Polydimethylsiloxane-embedded conductive fabric: Characterization and application for realization of robust passive and active flexible wearable antennas," IEEE Access, Vol. 6, 48102-48112, 2018.

    120. Hu, B., et al., "Bending and on-arm effects on a wearable antenna for 2.45 GHz body area network," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 15, 378-381, 2015.

    121. Ha, S.-J. and C. W. Jung, "Reconfigurable beam steering using a microstrip patch antenna with a U-slot for wearable fabric applications," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 10, 1228-1231, 2011.

    122. Yang, L., et al., "RFID tag and RF structures on a paper substrate using inkjet-printing technology," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 55, No. 12, 2894-2901, 2007.

    123. Zhang, S., et al., "Embroidered wearable antennas using conductive threads with different stitch spacings," 2012 Loughborough Antennas & Propagation Conference (LAPC), IEEE, 2012.

    124. Sayem, A. S. M., et al., "Feasibility study of PDMS embedded transparent conductive fabric for the realization of transparent flexible antennas," 2019 13th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP), IEEE, 2019.

    125. Li, J., Y. Jiang, and X. Zhao, "Circularly polarized wearable antenna based on NinjaFlex-embedded conductive fabric," International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 2019, 2019.

    126. Balanis, C. A., Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design, John Wiley & Sons, 2016.

    127. Upadhyaya, T. K., et al., "Miniaturization of tri band patch antenna using metamaterials," 2012 Fourth International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Communication Networks, IEEE, 2012.

    128. Gnanagurunathan, G. and K. T. Selvan, "Metamaterial-based planar antennas," Frontiers in Electronic Technologies, 101-115, Springer, 2017.

    129. Bhatt, S., et al., "Analysis of ultra wideband fractal antenna designs and their applications for wireless communication: A survey," 2017 International Conference on Inventive Systems and Control (ICISC), IEEE, 2017.

    130. Zhong, S., X. Yan, and X. Liang, "UWB planar antenna technology," Frontiers of Electrical and Electronic Engineering in China, Vol. 3, No. 2, 136-144, 2008.

    131. Archevapanich, T., et al., "Ultra-wideband slot antenna on flexible substrate for WLAN/WiMAX/UWB applications," Asian Simulation Conference, Springer, 2014.

    132. Kantharia, M., et al., "Performance evaluation of transparent and non-transparent flexible antennas," Optical and Wireless Technologies, 1-8, Springer, 2020.