PIER C
 
Progress In Electromagnetics Research C
ISSN: 1937-8718
Home | Search | Notification | Authors | Submission | PIERS Home | EM Academy
Home > Vol. 65 > pp. 153-162

APPLICATION OF ULTRA-THIN ASSEMBLED PLANAR METAMATERIAL FOR WIRELESS POWER TRANSFER SYSTEM

By J.-F. Chen, Z. Hu, S. Wang, M. Liu, Y. Cheng, Z. Ding, B. Wei, and S. Wang

Full Article PDF (620 KB)

Abstract:
Magnetically coupled resonant wireless power transfer (WPT) has been employed in many applications, including wireless charging of portable electronic devices, electric vehicles, etc. However, the power transfer efficiency (PTE) decreases sharply due to divergence of magnetic field. Electromagnetic (EM) metamaterial (MM) can control the direction of magnetic fields due to its nega-tive effective permeability. In this paper, MMs with negative effective permeability at radio frequencies (RF) are applied to a WPT system operating at around 16.30 MHz for improvement of PTE. This ul-tra-thin and assembled planar MM structure consists of a single-sided periodic array of the capaci-tively loaded split ring resonators (CLSRRs). Both simulation and experiment are performed to cha-racterize the WPT system with and without MMs. The results indicate that the contribution of high PTE is due to the property of negative effective permeability. By integrating MM in the WPT system, the experimental results verify that the measured PTE with one and two MM slabs have respectively 10% and 17% improvement compared to the case without MM. The measured PTEs of the system at different transmission distances are also investigated. Finally, the proposed MM slabs are applied in a more practical WPT system (with a light bulb load) to reveal its effects. The results verify the efficiency improvement by the realized power received the load.

Citation:
J.-F. Chen, Z. Hu, S. Wang, M. Liu, Y. Cheng, Z. Ding, B. Wei, and S. Wang, "Application of Ultra-Thin Assembled Planar Metamaterial for Wireless Power Transfer System," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 65, 153-162, 2016.
doi:10.2528/PIERC16033002

References:
1. Tesla, N., Electrical World and Engineer, 21-24, January 7, 1905.

2. Garnica, J., R. A. Chinga, and J. Lin, "Wireless power transmission: From far field to near field," Proc. IEEE, Vol. 101, No. 6, 1321-1331, 2013.
doi:10.1109/JPROC.2013.2251411

3. McSpadden, J. O. and J. C. Mankins, "Space solar power programs and microwave wireless power transmission technology," IEEE Micro. Mag., Vol. 3, No. 4, 46-57, 2002.
doi:10.1109/MMW.2002.1145675

4. Kurs, A., A. Karalis, R. Moffatt, J. D. Joannopoulos, P. Fisher, and M. Soljacic, "Wireless power transfer via strongly coupled magnetic resonances," Science, Vol. 317, 83-86, 2007.
doi:10.1126/science.1143254

5. Sample, A. P., D. A. Meyer, and J. R. Smith, "Analysis, experimental results, and range adaptation of magnetically coupled resonators for wireless power transfer," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Vol. 58, No. 2, 544-554, 2011.
doi:10.1109/TIE.2010.2046002

6. Pendry, J. B., "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol. 85, 3966, 2000.
doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.85.3966

7. Zhang, X. and Z. Liu, "Superlenses to overcome the diffraction limit," Nat. Mater., Vol. 7, No. 6, 435-441, 2008.
doi:10.1038/nmat2141

8. Merlin, R., "Radiationless electromagnetic interference: Evanescent-field lenses and perfect focusing," Science, Vol. 317, 5840, 927–929, 2007.

9. Urzhumov, Y. and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial-enhanced coupling between magnetic dipoles for efficient wireless power transfer," Phys. Rev. B, Vol. 83, No. 20, 205114, 2011.
doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.83.205114

10. Huang, D., Y. Urzhumov, D. R. Smith, K. H. Teo, and J. Zhang, "Magnetic superlens-enhanced inductive coupling for wireless power transfer," J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 111, No. 6, 064902, 2012.
doi:10.1063/1.3692757

11. Lipworth, G., J. Ensworth, K. Seetharam, D. Huang, J. S. Lee, P. Schmalenberg, T. Nomura, M. S. Reynolds, D. R. Smith, and Y. Urzhumov, "Magnetic metamaterial superlens for increased range wireless power transfer," Sci. Rep., Vol. 4, 3642, 2014.

12. Zhao, Y. and E. Leelarasmee, "Controlling the resonances of indefinite materials for maximizing efficiency in wireless power transfer," Microw. Opt. Techn. Lett., Vol. 56, No. 4, 867-875, 2014.
doi:10.1002/mop.28212

13. Huang, Y., H. J. Tang, E. C. Chen, and C. Yao, "Effect on wireless power transmission with different layout of left-handed materials," AIP Adv., Vol. 3, No. 7, 072134, 2013.
doi:10.1063/1.4817579

14. Che, B. J., G. H. Yang, F. Y. Meng, K. Zhang, J. H. Fu, Q. Wu, and L. Sun, "Omnidirectional non-radiative wireless power transfer with rotating magnetic field and efficiency improvement by metamaterial," Appl. Phys. A, Vol. 116, No. 4, 1579-1586, 2014.
doi:10.1007/s00339-014-8409-0

15. Choi, J. and C. H. Seo, "High-efficiency wireless energy transmission using magnetic resonance based on negative refractive index metamaterial," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 106, 33-47, 2010.
doi:10.2528/PIER10050609

16. Wang, B., K. H. Teo, T. Nishino, W. Yerazunis, J. Barnwell, and J. Zhang, "Experiments on wireless power transfer with metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 98, No. 25, 254101, 2011.
doi:10.1063/1.3601927

17. Fan, Y., L. Li, S. Yu, C. Zhu, and C. H. Liang, "Experimental study of efficient wireless power transfer system integrating with highly sub-wavelength metamaterials," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 141, 769-784, 2013.
doi:10.2528/PIER13061711

18. Wang, B., W. Yerazunis, and K. H. Teo, "Wireless power transfer: Metamaterials and array of coupled resonators," Proc. IEEE, Vol. 101, No. 6, 1359-1368, 2013.
doi:10.1109/JPROC.2013.2245611

19. Rajagopalan, A., A. K. Ram Rakhyani, D. Schurig, and G. Lazzi, "Improving power transfer efficiency of a short-range telemetry system using compact metamaterials," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn., Vol. 62, No. 4, 947-955, 2014.
doi:10.1109/TMTT.2014.2304927

20. Ranaweera, A. L. A. K., T. P. Doung, and J. W. Lee, "Experimental investigation of compact metamaterial for high efficiency midrange wireless power transfer applications," J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 116, No. 4, 043914, 2014.
doi:10.1063/1.4891715

21. Zhang, Y., H. Tang, C. Yao, Y. Li, and S. Xiao, "Experiments on adjustable magnetic metamaterials applied in megahertz wireless power transmission," AIP Adv., Vol. 5, No. 1, 017142, 2015.
doi:10.1063/1.4907043

22. Wu, Q., Y. H. Li, N. Gao, F. Yang, Y. Q. Chen, K. Fang, Y. W. Zhang, and H. Chen, "Wireless power transfer based on magnetic metamaterials consisting of assembled ultra-subwavelength metaatoms," EPL-Europhys. Lett., Vol. 109, No. 6, 68005, 2015.
doi:10.1209/0295-5075/109/68005

23. Rao, X. S. and C. K. Ong, "Amplification of evanescent waves in a lossy left-handed material slab," Phys. Rev. B, Vol. 68, No. 11, 113103, 2003.
doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.68.113103

24. Baena, J. D., L. Jelinek, R. Marques, and F. Medina, "Near-perfect tunneling and amplification of evanescent electromagnetic waves in a waveguide filled by a metamaterial: Theory and experiments," Phys. Rev. B, Vol. 72, No. 7, 075116, 2005.
doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.72.075116

25. Cui, T. J., X. Q. Lin, Q. Cheng, H. F. Ma, and X. M. Yang, "Experiments on evanescent-wave amplification and transmission using metamaterial structures," Phys. Rev. B, Vol. 73, No. 24, 245119, 2006.
doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.73.245119

26. Cho, Y., H. Kim, C. Song, J. Song, D. H. Kim, H. Kim, and J. Kim, "Ultra-thin printed circuit board metamaterial for high efficiency wireless power transfer," IEEE Wireless Power Transfer Conference (WPTC), 2015.

27. Chabalko, M., B. Jordan, and R. David, "Magnetic field enhancement in wireless power using metamaterials magnetic resonant couplers," IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag. Lett., Vol. 15, 2016.

28. Baena, J. D., R. Marques, F. Medina, and J. Martel, "Artificial magnetic metamaterial design by using spiral resonators," Phys. Rev. B, Vol. 69, No. 1, 014402, 2004.
doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.69.014402

29. Erentok, A., R. W. Ziolkowski, J. A. Nielsen, R. B. Greegor, C. G. Parazzoli, M. H. Tanielian, S. A. Cummer, B. I. Popa, T. Hand, D. C. Vier, and S. Schultz, "Lumped element-based, highly sub-wavelength, negative index metamaterials at UHF frequencies," J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 104, No. 3, 034901, 2008.
doi:10.1063/1.2959377

30. Chen, W. C., C. M. Bingham, K. M. Mak, N. W. Caira, and W. J. Padilla, "Extremely subwavelength planar magnetic metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B, Vol. 85, No. 20, 201104, 2012.
doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.85.201104

31. Smith, D. R., D. C. Vier, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E, Vol. 71, No. 3, 036617, 2005.
doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.71.036617

32. Duong, T. P. and J. W. Lee, "Experimental results of high-efficiency resonant coupling wireless power transfer using a variable coupling method," IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett., Vol. 21, No. 8, 442-444, 2011.
doi:10.1109/LMWC.2011.2160163


© Copyright 2010 EMW Publishing. All Rights Reserved