Progress In Electromagnetics Research C
ISSN: 1937-8718
Home | Search | Notification | Authors | Submission | PIERS Home | EM Academy
Home > Vol. 69 > pp. 83-95


By C. Y. Lee, K. Y. You, T. S. Tan, Y. L. Then, Y. S. Lee, L. Zahid, W. L. Lim, and C. H. Lee

Full Article PDF (665 KB)

In this study, a Six-port Reflectometer (SPR) with dielectric probe sensor is used to predict relative dielectric, εrof normal and tumorous breast tissue in frequency range from 2.34\,GHz to 3.0 GHz. Other than that, a superstrate with an exterior copper layer is overlaid on the surface of a primitive Five-port Ring Circuit (FPRC), which is also a denominated, enhanced superstrate FPRC. It is the main component of the SPR and is presented in this paper as well. The enhanced superstrate FPRC is capable of improving its operating bandwidth by 26{\%} and shifting the operating centre frequency to a lower value without increasing circuit physical size. The detailed design and characteristics of the FPRC are described here. In addition, the enhanced superstrate FPRC is integrated into the SPR for one-port reflection coefficient measurement. The measurement using the SPR is benchmarked with Agilent's E5071C Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) for one-port reflection coefficient. Maximum absolute mean error of the linear magnitude and phase measurements are recorded to be 0.03 and 5.50°, respectively. In addition, maximum absolute error of the predicted dielectric and loss factor are 1.77 and 0.61, respectively.

C. Y. Lee, K. Y. You, T. S. Tan, Y. L. Then, Y. S. Lee, L. Zahid, W. L. Lim, and C. H. Lee, "Enhanced Five-Port Ring Circuit Reflectometer for Synthetic Breast Tissue Dielectric Determination," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 69, 83-95, 2016.

1. Torre, L. A., F. Bray, R. L. Siegel, J. Ferlay, T. J. Lortet, and A. Jemal, "Global cancer statistics 2012," A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 87-108, 2012.

2. Jemal, A., F. Bray, M. M. Center, J. Ferlay, E. Ward, and D. Forman, "Global cancer statistics 2011," A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 69-90, 2011.

3. Speirs, V. and A. Shaaban, "The rising incidence of male breast cancer," Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 429-430, 2009.

4. Jotwani, A. and J. Gralow, "Early detection of breast cancer," Molecular Diagnosis and Therapy, 349-357, 2009.

5. Romeo, S., L. Di Donato, O. M. Bucci, I. Catapano, L. Crocco, M. R. Scarfı, and R. Massa, "Dielectric characterization study of liquid-based materials for mimicking breast tissues," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 1276-1280, 2011.

6. Riblet, G. P. and E. R. B. Hansson, "The use of a matched symmetrical five-port junction to make six-port measurements," Microwave Symposium Digest, 151-153, 1981.

7. Lee, K. Y., A. Zulkifly, J. A. Mohamad, K. Y. You, and E. M. Cheng, "Determination of moisture content in oil palm fruits using a five-port reflectometer," Sensors, Vol. 11, No. 4, 4073-4085, 2011.

8. Duenas-Jimenez, A. and C. A. Bonilla-Barragan, "On the calibration of a microwave network sixport reflection analyzer," IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 56, No. 5, 1763-1769, 2007.

9. Lee, K. Y., B. K. Chung, K. Y. You, E. M. Cheng, and A. Zulkifly, "Development of a symmetric ring junction as a four-port reflectometer for complex reflection coefficient measurements," Radioengineering, Vol. 24, No. 4, 906-911, 2015.

10. Yao, J. J. and S. P. Yeo, "Six-port reflectometer based on modified hybrid couplers," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 56, No. 2, 493-498, 2008.

11. Staszek, K., J. Sorocki, P. Kaminski, K. Wincza, and S. Gruszczynski, "A broadband 3 dB tandem coupler utilizing right/left handed transmission line sections," IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, Vol. 24, No. 4, 236-238, 2014.

12. Julrat, S., M. Chongcheawchamnan, T. Khaoraphapong, and I. D. Robertson, "Analysis and design of a differential sampled-line six-port reflectometer," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 61, No. 1, 244-255, 2013.

13. Judah, S. K. and M. D. Judd, "Direct synthesis of the matched symmetric five-port junction from its scattering matrix," IEE Proceedings H — Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 133, No. 2, 95-98, 1986.

14. De-Ronde, F. C., "Octave-wide matched symmetrical, reciprocal, 4- and 5 ports," Microwave Symposium Digest, 521-523, 1982.

15. Yeo, S. P., T. S. Yeo, and K. M. Ng, "First-order eigenmode analysis of symmetrical five-port microstrip ring coupler," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 2, No. 3, 91-94, 1989.

16. Duenas-Jimenez, A., A. Serrano-Santoyo, and F. J. Mendieta, "On the synthesis of some ring junctions for six-port measurement applications," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 5, No. 11, 559-563, 1992.

17. Kim, D. I., K. Araki, and Y. Naito, "Properties of the symmetrical circuit and its broad-band five-port design," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 32, No. 1, 51-57, 1984.

18. Yeo, S. P. and F. C. Choong, "Matched symmetrical five-port microstrip coupler," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 49, No. 8, 1498-1500, 2001.

19. Pozar, D. M., Microwave Engineering, 4th Ed., Wiley, 2004.

20. Potter, C. and A. Bullock, "Nonlinearity correction of microwave diode detectors using a repeatable attenuation step," Microwave Journal, Vol. 36, 272, 274, 277-279, 1993.

21. Engen, G. F., "Calibrating the six-port reflectometer by means of sliding terminations," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 26, No. 12, 951-957, 1978.

22. Wiedmann, F., B. Huyart, E. Bergeault, and L. Jallet, "A new robust method for six-port reflectometer calibration," IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 48, No. 5, 927-931, 1999.

23. Stumper, U., "Finding initial estimates needed for the engen method of calibrating single six-port reflectometers," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 38, No. 7, 946-949, 1990.

24. Neumeyer, B., "A new analytical method for complete six-port reflectometer calibration," IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 39, No. 2, 376-379, 1990.

25. Potter, C. M. and G. Hjipieris, "A robust six- to four-port reduction algorithm," Microwave Symposium Digest, 1263-1266, 1993.

26. You, K. Y., RF Coaxial Slot Radiators: Modeling, Measurements and Applications, 1st Ed., Artech House, 2015.

27. Gregory, A. P. and R. N. Clarke, "Tables of the complex permittivity of dielectric reference liquids at frequencies up to 5GHz," NPL Rep. CETM, Vol. 33, 2001.

© Copyright 2010 EMW Publishing. All Rights Reserved