PIER C
 
Progress In Electromagnetics Research C
ISSN: 1937-8718
Home | Search | Notification | Authors | Submission | PIERS Home | EM Academy
Home > Vol. 95 > pp. 209-225

DIRECTION OF ARRIVAL (DOA) ESTIMATION FOR SMART ANTENNAS IN WEATHER IMPACTED ENVIRONMENTS

By B. P. Nxumalo and T. Walingo

Full Article PDF (649 KB)

Abstract:
Direction of arrival estimation (DOA) is critical in antenna design for emphasizing the desired signal and minimizing interference. The scarcity of radio spectrum has fuelled the migration of communication networks to higher frequencies. This has resulted in radio propagation challenges due to the adverse environmental elements otherwise unexperienced at lower frequencies. In rainfall-impacted environments, DOA estimation is greatly affected by signal attenuation and scattering at the higher frequencies. Therefore, new DOA algorithms cognisant of these factors need to be developed and the performance of the existing algorithms quantified. This work investigates the performance of the Conventional Minimum Variance Distortion-less Look (MVDL), Subspace DOA Estimation Methods of Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) and the developed estimation algorithm on a weather impacted wireless channel, Advanced-MUSIC (A-MUSIC). The results show performance degradation in a rainfall impacted communication network with the developed algorithm showing better performance degradation.

Citation:
B. P. Nxumalo and T. Walingo, "Direction of Arrival (DOA) Estimation for Smart Antennas in Weather Impacted Environments," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 95, 209-225, 2019.
doi:10.2528/PIERC19051006

References:
1. Tsoulos, G. V., "Smart antennas for mobile communication systems: Benefits and challenges," IEE Electron. Commun Eng. Journal, Vol. 11, No. 2, 84-94, April 1999.
doi:10.1049/ecej:19990204

2. Lavate, T. V., V. K. Kokate, and A. M. Sakpal, "Performance analysis of MUSIC and ESPRIT DOA estimation algorithms for adaptive array smart antenna in mobile communication," Proc. of IEEE, Second Int. Conf. Computer and Network Technology, 308-311, 2010.

3. Shaukat, S. F., H. Mukhtar, R. Farooq, H. U. Saeed, and Z. Saleem, "Sequential studies of beamforming algorithms for smart antenna systems," World Applied Sciences Journal, Vol. 6, No. 6, 754-758, 2009.

4. Balanis, C., Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design, 3rd Ed., John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken, New Jersey, 2005.

5. Leon De, F. A. and S. J. J. Marciano, "Application of MUSIC, ESPRIT and SAGE algorithms for narrowband signal detection and localization," TENCON, IEEE Reg. 10 Conf., 1-4, 2006.

6. Qian, C., H. Lei, and H. C. So, "Computationally efficient ESPRIT algorithm for direction-of-arrival estimation based on Nystrom method," Signal Processing, Vol. 94, 74-80, 2014.
doi:10.1016/j.sigpro.2013.05.007

7. Xu, C. and J. Krolik, "Space-delay adaptive processing for MIMO RF indoor motion mapping," IEEE. Int. Conf. on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), 2349-2353, Brisbane, QLD, April 2015.

8. Dhope, T., D. Simunic, and M. Djurek, "Application of DOA estimation algorithms in smart antenna systems," Studies in Informatics and Control, Vol. 19, No. 4, 445-452, December 2010.

9. Schmidt, R., "Multiple emitter location and signal parameter estimation," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 34, No. 3, 276-280, 1986.
doi:10.1109/TAP.1986.1143830

10. Roy, R. and T. Kailath, "ESPRIT-a subspace rotational approach to estimation of parameters of cissoids in noise," IEEE Transactions on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, Vol. 34, No. 10, 1340-1342, 1986.
doi:10.1109/TASSP.1986.1164935

11. Zhang, Y., P. Wang, and Goldsmith, "Rainfall effect on the performance of millimeter-wave MIMO systems," IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, Vol. 14, No. 9, 4857-4866, September 2015.
doi:10.1109/TWC.2015.2427282

12. Pi, Z. and F. Khan, "An Introduction to millimeter-wave mobile broadband systems," IEEE Commun. Mag., Vol. 49, No. 6, 101-107, June 2011.
doi:10.1109/MCOM.2011.5783993

13. Ishimaru, A., Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media, IEEE Press, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 1978.

14. Ishimaru, A., S. Jaruwatanadilok, and Y. Kuga, "Multipel scattering effects on the radar cross section (RCS) of objects in a random medium including backscattering enhancement and shower curtain effects," Waves Random Media, Vol. 14, 499-511, 2004.
doi:10.1088/0959-7174/14/4/002

15. Agber, J. U. and J. M. Akura, "A high-performance model for rainfall effect on radio signals," Journal of Information Engineering and Applications, Vol. 3, No. 7, 1-12, 2013.

16. Calla, O. and J. Purohit, "Study of effect of rain and dust on propagation of radio waves at millimeter wavelength," International Centre for Radio Science, 1-4, `OM NIWAS'A-23 Shastri Nagar Jodhpur, January 1990.

17. Alonge, A. A. and T. J. Afullo, "Fractal analysis of rainfall event duration for microwave and millimetre networks: Rain queueing theory approach," IET Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 9, No. 4, 291-300, 2015.
doi:10.1049/iet-map.2013.0619

18. Kedem, B. and L. S. Chiu, "On the lognormality of rain rate," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 84, No. 4, 901-905, 1987.
doi:10.1073/pnas.84.4.901

19. Cho, H. K., K. P. Bowman, and G. R. North, "A comparison of gamma and lognormal distributions for characterizing satellite rain rates from the tropical rainfall measuring mission," Journal of Applied Meteorology, Vol. 43, No. 11, 1586-1597, 2004.
doi:10.1175/JAM2165.1

20. I.T.U. Radiowave Propagation Series, "Specific attenuation model for rain for use in prediction methods," Rec. P.838-3, ITU-R, Geneva, Switzerland, 2005.

21. Oh, D., Y. Ju, and J. Lee, "An improved MVDR-like TOA estimation without EVD for high-resolution ranging system," IEEE Communications Letters, Vol. 18, No. 5, 753-756, May 2014.
doi:10.1109/LCOMM.2014.032014.132246

22. El Gonnouni, A., M. Martinez-Ramon, J. L. Rojo-Alvarez, G. Camps-Valls, A. R. Figueiras-Vidal, and C. G. Christodoulou, "A support vector machine MUSIC algorithm," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 60, No. 10, 4901-4910, October 2012.
doi:10.1109/TAP.2012.2209195

23. Balakrishnan, S. and L. T. Ong, "GNU radio based digital beamforming system: BER and computational performance analysis," Proc. of the 2015 23rd European Signal Processing Conference (EUSIPCO), 1596-1600, Nice, France, August 31-September 4, 2015.

24. Stoeckle, C., J. Munir, A. Mezghani, and J. A. Nossek, "DOA estimation performance and computational complexity of subspace- and compressed sensing-based methods," Proc. in WSA 2015 19th International ITG Workshop on Smart Antennas, 1-6, March 2015.

25. Bhaumik, B., "Performance analysis of MUSIC algorithm for DOA estimation," International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET), Vol. 4, 1667-1670, February 2017.

26. Aboul-Seoud, A. K., A. K. Mahmoud, A. Hafez, and A. Gaballa, "Minimum variance variable constrain DOA algorithm," PIERS Proceedings, 798-803, Guangzhou, China, August 25-28, 2014.

27. Kokare, R. G. and V. S. Hendre, "Estimation of direction of arrival using music and esprit algorithm for smart antenna," Internationl Journal of Control Theory and Applications, Vol. 10, No. 38, 2017.


© Copyright 2010 EMW Publishing. All Rights Reserved