Vol. 7

Latest Volume
All Volumes
All Issues

Simulation of Spread Spectrum Radar Using Rake at the Receiver End

By Debadatta Kandar, Chandan Kumar Sarkar, and Rabindra Nath Bera
Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 7, 35-45, 2009


Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) are becoming a reality, driven by navigation safety requirements and by the investments of car manufacturers and Public Transport Authorities all around the world. ITS make it possible to imagine a future in which cars will be able to foresee and avoid collisions, navigate the quickest route to their destination, making use of up-to-the minute traffic reports, identify the nearest available parking slot and minimize their carbon emissions. Also demand for voice, data and multimedia services, while moving in car increase the importance of broadband wireless systems [1]. Efforts are being imparted towards the convergence of mobile communications, computing and remote sensing. Spread spectrum based digital RADAR can be utilized as a remote sensing device in ITS. This motivates us in development of DSSS (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum) based digital RADAR at our institute. It is quite capable of detecting target in the open field. The experiment was carried out for different standard target like flat plates, spheres etc. The operational digital RADAR is capable of rejecting interference, but fails in a strong multipath scenario. Again RAKE processing is established in communication. Our approach is implementing RAKE processing at the RADAR receiver to exploit multipath.


Debadatta Kandar, Chandan Kumar Sarkar, and Rabindra Nath Bera, "Simulation of Spread Spectrum Radar Using Rake at the Receiver End," Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 7, 35-45, 2009.


    1. Huang, X., "Smart antennas for intelligent transportation systems," 6th International Conference on ITS Telecommunications Proceedings, 2006.

    2. Belohoubek, E. F., "Radar control for automotive collision mitigation and headway spacing," IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., Vol. 31, 89-99, May 1982.

    3. Brus, E., "Vehicular radar: The ultimate aid for defensive driving," Microwaves & RF, 53-58, Sep. 1987.

    4. Bera, R., J. Bera, S. Sil, D. Kandar, and D. Dey, "Use of spread spectrum based cellular phone technology to ‘digital radar’," CODEC 2004, Calcutta University, Kolkata, Jan. 1–3, 2004.

    5. Kandar, D. and R. Bera, "Development of an imaging radar instrumentation system using DS-UWB wireless technology," Proceedings of XXVIIIth General Assembly of International Union of Radio Science (URSI).

    6. Skolnik, M., Introduction to Radar System, 3 Ed., McGraw-Hill, 2002.

    7. Foschini, G. J., "Layered space-time architecture for wireless communication in a fading environment whwn using multielement antennas," Bell Laboratories Technical Journal, Vol. 1, No. 2, 41-59, 1996.

    8. Hanzo, L., L.-L. Yong, E.-L. Kuan, and K. Yen, Single and Multi-Carrier DS-CDMA Multy-User Detection, Space-Time Spreading Synchronisation and Standards, 1 Ed., John Wiley & Sons, 2003.

    9. Wolniansky, P. W., G. J. Foschini, G. D. Golden, and R. A. Valenzuela, "V-blast: An architecture for realizing very high data rates over the rich-scattering wireless channel," Proc. of Issse, 295-300, Pisa, Italy, Sep.–Oct. 1998.

    10. Skolnik, M., Introduction to Radar System, 3 Ed., McGraw-Hill, 2002.

    11. Knott, E. F., Radar Cross Section, 2 Ed., Scitech, Raleigh, NC, 2004.

    12. Sinha, N. B., D. Kandar, and R. Bera, "Measurement of target parameters using the dsss radar," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 1, 185-195, 2008.

    13., "Special issue on spread-spectrum communication," IEEE Trans. Commun.,, Vol. 30, May 1982.

    14. Simon, M. K., et al., "Spread-spectrum communications," Comp. Sci., Vol. 1–3, 1985.

    15. Scholrz, R. A., "Spread-Spectrum Concept," IEEE Trans. Commun., Vol. 25, Aug. 1977.

    16. Torrieri, D. J., Principles of Secure Communication Systems, Artech House, Norwood, MA, 1992.

    17. Cooper, G. R. and C. D. McGillem, Modern Communication and Spread-Spectrum, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1986.

    18. Glisic, S. G. and P. A. Leppanen (eds.), Code Division Multiple Access Communications, Kluwer Academic, Norwell, MA, 1995.

    19. Viterbi, A. J., CDMA Principles of Spread-Spectrum Communications, Addison-Wesley, MA, 1995.

    20. Dixon, R. C., Spread-Spectrum Systems, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1984.

    21. Heikkila, T., "Rake receiver,", S-72.333 Postgraduate Course in Radio Communications, Dec. 7th, 2004.

    22. Burns, P., Software Defined Radio for 3G, Mobile Communications Series, Artech House.