PIER Letters
Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters
ISSN: 1937-6480
Home | Search | Notification | Authors | Submission | PIERS Home | EM Academy
Home > Vol. 58 > pp. 81-88


By S. A. Saputro and J.-Y. Chung

Full Article PDF (291 KB)

We present a Hilbert curve fractal antenna operating at 2.45 GHz ISM and 5.5 GHz WLAN bands. The proposed antenna employs a third-order Hilbert curve and two shorting vias for antenna miniaturization and dual-band/mode operation. At 2.45 GHz, the antenna exhibits a monopole-like radiation pattern, while at 5.5 GHz, it provides a broadside radiation pattern, suitable for simultaneous on- and off-body communication using two distinct frequency bands. The antenna foot print is as small as 25.5 mm×25.5 mm. Simulation and measurement results demonstrate that the antenna gain is more than 1.9 dBi if the antenna is mounted on a ground larger than 40 mm×40 mm. The effect of human body presence on antenna performance was investigated by means of full-wave simulations locating the antenna on a human body phantom. It is shown that the proposed antenna is capable of maintaining its free-space performance over the human body phantom except for the gain reduction of 2.5 dBi at 5.5 GHz band.

S. A. Saputro and J.-Y. Chung, "Hilbert Curve Fractal Antenna for Dual on- and off -Body Communication," Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 58, 81-88, 2016.

1. Cavallari, R., F. Martelli, R. Rosini, C. Buratti, and R. Verdone, "Survey on wireless body area networks: Technologies and design challenges," IEEE Comm. Surveys Tutor., Vol. 16, No. 3, 1635-1657, Third Quarter, 2014.

2. Li, M., S. Q. Xiao, and B. Z. Wang, "Pattern-reconfigurable antenna for on-body communication," Proc. IMWS-BIO, 1-3, 2013.

3. Scott, H. and V. F. Fusco, "Antenna array beam-steering by the integration of a series phase shifter," Proc. High Freq. Postgrad. Stu. Colloq., 25-29, 2001.

4. Yusuf, Y. and X. Gong, "Low-cost patch antenna phased array with analog beam steering using mutual coupling and reactive loading," IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett., Vol. 7, 81-84, 2008.

5. Lim, I. and S. Lim, "Monopole-like and boresight pattern reconfigurable antenna," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 61, No. 12, 5854-5859, Dec. 2013.

6. Lee, S. W. and Y. Sung, "A polarization diversity patch antenna with reconfigurable feeding network," J. Electromagn. Eng. Sci., Vol. 15, No. 2, 115-119, Apr. 2015.

7. Nessel, J. A., A. J. Zaman, and F. A. Miranda, "A miniaturized antenna for surface-to-surface and surface-to-orbiter applications," Microw. Opt. Tech. Lett., Vol. 48, No. 5, 859-862, Mar. 2006.

8. Patel, M. and J. Wang, "Applications, challenges, and prospective in emerging body area networking technologies," IEEE Trans. Wirel. Commu., Vol. 17, No. 1, 80-88, Feb. 2010.

9. Anguera, J., C. Puente, and J. Soler, "Miniature monopole antenna based on fractal Hilbert curve," Proc. IEEE Antennas Propag. - Soc. Int. Symp., Vol. 4, 546-549, 2002.

10. Vinoy, K. J., K. A. Jose, V. K. Varadan, and V. V. Varadan, "Resonant frequency of Hilbert curve fractal antennas," Proc. Antennas Propag. - Soc. Int. Symp., Vol. 3, 648-651, 2001.

11. Azaro, R., F. Viani, L. Lizzi, E. Zeni, and A. Massa, "A monopolar quad-band antenna based on a Hilbert self-affine prefractal geometry," IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett., Vol. 8, 177-180, 2009.

12. Sinha, S. N. and M. Jain, "A self-affine fractal multiband antenna," IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett., Vol. 6, 110-112, 2007.

13. Mahatthanajatuphat, C., P. Akkaraekthalin, S. Saleekaw, and M. Krairiksh, "A bidirectional multiband antenna with modified fractal slot fed by CPW," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 95, 59-72, 2009.

14. Wang, Z., L. Z. Lee, D. Psychoudakis, and J. L. Volakis, "Embroidered multiband body-worn antenna for GSM/PCS/WLAN communications," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 62, No. 6, 3321-3329, Jun. 2014.

15. See, T. S. P. and Z. N. Chen, "Experimental characterization of UWB antennas for on-body communications," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 57, No. 4, 866-874, Apr. 2009.

16. Christ, A., A. Klingenbock, T. Samaras, C. Goiceanu, and N. Kuster, "The dependence of electromagnetic far-field absorption on body tissue composition in the frequency range from 300MHz to 6 GHz," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., Vol. 54, No. 5, 2188-2195, May 2006.

17. Inst. of Appl. Phys., "Calculation of the dielectric properties of body tissues in the frequency range 10 Hz-100 GHz,", Italian Nat. Res. Council, Florence, Italy, [Online] Available: http://niremf.ifac.cnr.it/tissprop/.

18. Ryckaert, J., P. De Doncker, R. Meys, A. de Le Hoye, and S. Donnay, "Channel model for wireless communication around human body," IEEE Electron. Lett., Vol. 40, No. 9, 543-544, Apr. 2004.

19. Conway, G. A. and W. G. Scanlon, "Antennas for over-body-surface communication at 2.45 GHz," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 57, No. 4, 844-855, Apr. 2009.

20. Hall, P. S., Y. Hao, Y. I. Nechayev, A. Alomainy, C. C. Constantinou, C. Parini, M. R. Kamarudin, T. Z. Salim, D. T.M. Hee, R. Dubrovka, A. S. Owadally, S.Wei, A. Serra, P. Nepa, M. Gallo, and M. Bozzetti, "Antennas and propagation for on-body communication systems," IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag., Vol. 49, No. 3, 41-58, Jun. 2007.

© Copyright 2010 EMW Publishing. All Rights Reserved