The magnetic resonance of various split ring resonators (SRRs) is numerically investigated to analyze the dependence of the resonance frequency on their parameter designs. The behavior of the magnetic resonance frequency in the configuration of the 2-cut single-ring SRR (2C-SRR) shows a larger shift in relation to the changes of the SRR size scaling, split width and substrate permittivity. A new magnetic particle formed by the 2C-SRR structure incorporating nematic liquid crystals (LCs) into the multilayered substrate is proposed for the realization of a tunable magnetic metamaterial. When using such inclusions, the tuning range of the magnetic resonance conditions could be as wide as ~1.1 GHz via changing the orientation of LC molecules by 90°.
2. Maslovski, S., P. Ikonen, I. Kolmakov, S. Tretyakov, and M. Kaunisto, "Artificial magnetic materials based on the new magnetic particle: Metasolenoid," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 54, 61-81, 2005.
3. Wang, J., S. Qu, J. Zhang, H. Ma, Y. Yang, C. Gu, X. Wu, and Z. Xu, "A tunable left-handed metamaterial based on modified broadside-coupled split-ring resonators," Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letter, Vol. 6, 35-45, 2009.
4. Shelby, R. A., D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science,, Vol. 292, 77-79, 2001.
5. Huangfu, J., L. Ran, H. Chen, X.-M. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, "Experimental confirmation of negative refractive index of a metamaterial composed of -like metallic patterns," Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 84, No. 9, 1537-1539, 2004.
6. Chen, H. S., L. X. Ran, J. T. Huangfu, X. M. Zhang, K. S. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, "Magnetic properties of S-shaped split-ring resonators," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 51, 231-247, 2005.
7. Wu, W., Z. Yu, S.-Y. Wang, R. S. Williams, Y. Liu, C. Sun, X. Zhang, E. Kim, Y. R. Shen, N. X. Fang, "Midinfrared metamaterials fabricated by nanoimprint lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 90, 063107, 2007.
8. Pendry, J. B., "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol. 85, No. 18, 3966-3969, 2000.
9. Cai, W., U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Optical cloaking with metamaterials," Nature Photon., Vol. 1, 224-227, 2007.
10. Wu, B., B. Li, and C. Liang, "Design of lowpass filter using a novel split-ring resonator defected ground structure," Microwave Optical Technol. Lett., Vol. 49, No. 2, 288-291, 2007.
11. Alici, K. B. and E. Ozbay, "Electrically small split ring resonator antennas," J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 101, 093104, 2007.
12. Lee, S.-W., Y. Kuga, and A. Ishimaru, "Quasi-static analysis of materials with small tunable stacked split ring resonators," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 51, 219-229, 2005.
13., "Tunable metamaterial transmission lines based on varactor-loaded split-ring resonators," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., Vol. 54, No. 6, 2665-2674, 2006.
14. Aydin, K. and E. Ozbay, "Capacitor-loaded split ring resonators as tunable metamaterial components," J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 101, 024911, 2007.
15. Boulais, K. A., D. W. Rule, S. Simmons, F. Santiago, V. Gehman, K. Long, and A. Rayms-Keller, "Tunable split-ring resonator for metamaterials using photocapacitance of semi-insulating GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 93, 043518, 2008.
16. Kang, L., Q. Zhao, H. Zhao, and J. Zhou, "Ferrite-based magnetically tunable left-handed metamaterial composed of SRRs and wires," Opt. Express, Vol. 16, No. 22, 17269-17275, 2008.
17. Werner, D. H., D.-H. Kwon, I.-C. Khoo, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Liquid crystal clad near-infrared metamaterials with tunable negative-zero-positive refractive indices," Opt. Express, Vol. 15, No. 6, 3342-3347, 2007.
18. Zhao, Q., L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, J. Zhou, H. Tang, X. Liang, and B. Zhang, "Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 90, 011112, 2007.
19. Zhang, F., Q. Zhao, L. Kang, D. P. Gaillot, X. Zhao, J. Zhou, and D. Lippens, "Magnetic control of negative permeability metamaterials based on liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 92, 193104, 2008.
20. Plum, E., V. A. Fedotov, and N. I. Zheludev, "Optical activity in extrinsically chiral metamaterial," Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 93, 191911, 2008.
21. Smith, D. R., S. Schultz, P. Markoš, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B, Vol. 65, 195104, 2002.
22. Zhou, J., Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol. 95, 223902, 2005.
23. Khoo, I. C., Liquid Crystals, 2 Ed., Wiley, Hoboken, 2007.
24. Khoo, I. C. and S. T. Wu, Optics and Nonlinear Optics of Liquid Crystals, World Scientific, Singapore, 1993.
25. Buchnev, O., E. Ouskova, Y. Reznikov, V. Reshetnyak, H. Kresse, and A. Grabar, "Enhanced dielectric response of liquid crystal ferroelectric suspension," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst., Vol. 422, 47-55, 2004.