Vol. 14

Front:[PDF file] Back:[PDF file]
Latest Volume
All Volumes
All Issues

Using the Oscillating Dipoles Model to Study the Electromagnetic Radiation Induced by Fracture of Rocks

By Zhen Chen and Ka-Ma Huang
Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 14, 221-231, 2010


In this paper, we make an assumption that the inertia vibrations of the electron groups in the rock fragment of the crack tips generate EMR pulses during the fracture of rocks. Based on this assumption we develop an oscillating dipoles model to analyze and simulate the EMR phenomena induced by the rock fractures. Then we use this model to simulate the EMR pulses recorded in the Rabinovitch's compression experiments on granite and chalk. Our simulations indicate a comparable accordance with Rabinovitch's experimental results. From our simulation results, we also find that the crack width associates with the maximum EMR voltage peak value.


Zhen Chen and Ka-Ma Huang, "Using the Oscillating Dipoles Model to Study the Electromagnetic Radiation Induced by Fracture of Rocks," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 14, 221-231, 2010.


    1. Nitsan, U., "Electromagnetic emission accompanying fracture of quartz-bearing rocks," Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 4, No. 8, 333-337, August 1977.

    2. Warwick, J. W., C. Stoker, and T. R. Meyer, "Radio emission associated with rock fracture: Possible application to the great Chilean earthquake of May 22 1960," J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 87(B4), 2851-2859, 1982.

    3. Yamada, I., K. Masuda, and H. Mizutani, "Electromagnetic and acoustic emission associated with rock fracture," Phys. Earth Planet. Inter., Vol. 57, No. 1, 157-168, October 1989.

    4. Cress, G. O., B. T. Brady, and G. A. Rowell, "Sources of electromagnetic radiation from fracture of rock samples in laboratory," Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 14, No. 4, 331-334, April 1987.

    5. Frid, V., A. Rabinovitch, and D. Bahat, "Fracture induced electromagnetic radiation," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., Vol. 36, No. 13, 1620-1628, July 2003.

    6. Rabinovitch, A., V. Frid, and D. Bahat, "Surface oscillations --- A possible source of fracture induced electromagnetic radiation," Tectonophysics, Vol. 431, No. 1, 15-21, February 2007.

    7. Dickinson, J. T., L. C. Jensen, S. C. Longford, R. R. Ryan, and E. Garcia, "Fracto-emission from deuterated titanium: Supporting evidence for a fracto-fusion mechanism," J. Mater. Res., Vol. 5, No. 1, 109-122, January 1990.

    8. O'Keefe, S. G. and D. V. Thiel, "A mechanism for the production of electromagnetic radiation during fracture of brittle materials," Phys. Earth and Planet. Inter., Vol. 89, No. 1, 127-135, May 1995.

    9. Courtney, T. H., Mechanical Behavior of Materialsb, 2nd Ed., McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., Boston, 2000.

    10. Dickinson, J. T., E. E. Donaldson, and M. K. Park, "The emission of electrons and positive ions from fracture of materials," Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 16, No. 10, 2897-2908, October 1981.

    11. Enomoto, Y. and H. Hashimoto, "Emission of charged particles from indentation fracture of rocks," Nature, Vol. 346, No. 16, 641-643, August 1990.

    12. Hadjicontis, V., C. Mavromatou, and D. Ninos, "Stress induced polarization currents and electromagnetic emission from rocks and ionic crystals, accompanying their deformation," Natrural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 4, No. 5, 633-639, October 2004.

    13. Molchanov, O. A. and M. Hayakawa, "On the generation mechanism of ULF seismogenic electromagnetic emissions," Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, Vol. 105, No. 3, 201-210, July 1998.

    14. Pirhadi, A. and M. Hakkak, "An analytical investigation of the radiation characteristics of infinitesimal dipole antenna embedded in partially reflective surfaces to obtain high directivity," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 65, 137-155, 2006.

    15. Arrighetti, W., P. DeCupis, and G. Gerosa, "Electromagnetic radiation from moving fractal sources: A plane-wave spectral approach," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 58, 1-19, 2006.

    16. Rabinovitch, A., V. Frid, and D. Bahat, "Parametrization of electromagnetic radiation pulses obtained by triaxial fracture of granite samples," Philosophical Magazine Letters, Vol. 77, No. 5, 289-293, May 1998.

    17. Rabinovitch, A., V. Frid, D. Bahat, and J. Goldbaum, "Fracture area calculation from electromagnetic radiation and its use in chalk failure analysis," International Journal of Rock Mechanics & Mining Sciences, Vol. 37, No. 7, 1149-1154, October 2000.

    18. Perez, N., Fracture Mechanics, Kluwer Academic Publishers, New York, 2004.

    19. Thomson, W. T. and M. D. Dahleh, Theory of Vibration with Applications, 5th Ed., Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, 1998.

    20. Cheng, D. K., Field and Wave Electromagnetism, 2nd Ed., Addison-Wesley, New York, 1983.

    21. Pollack, G. L. and D. R. Stump, Electromagnetism, Addison-Wesley, New York, 2002.

    22. Goldbaum, J., V. Frid, D. Bahat, and A. Rabinovitch, "An analysis of complex electromagnetic radiation signals induced by fracture," Meas. Sci. Technol., Vol. 14, No. 10, 1839-1844, September 2003.

    23. Frid, V., D. Bahat, J. Goldbaum, and A. Rabinovitch, "\Experimental and theoretical investigation of electromagnetic radiation induced by rock fracture," Isr. J. Earth Sci., Vol. 49, No. 1, 9-19, January 2000.