Vol. 30

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Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Soil for Wireless Underground Sensor Networks

By Xiaoqing Yu, Pute Wu, Zenglin Zhang, Ning Wang, and Wenting Han
Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 30, 11-23, 2013


Wireless underground sensor networks (WUSN) consist of wireless devices that operate below the ground surface. These devices are buried completely under dense soil, thus electromagnetic wave transmits only through soil medium. However, the high attenuation that caused by soil is the main challenge for the electromagnetic wave transmission for WUSN. In this study, architecture of wireless underground sensor network communication was established. The experimental measurements were conducted using WUSN sensor nodes at three different carrier frequencies, respectively. Received signal strength and packet error rate were examined for communication links between the sensor nodes. The test results showed that carrier frequency was one of the main factors that affected electromagnetic wave propagation in the soil medium. It was concluded that the burial depth of the sensor nodes, horizontal inter-node distance, and soil volumetric water content have significant impacts on the signal strength and packet error rate during the electromagnetic wave propagation within a WUSN.


Xiaoqing Yu, Pute Wu, Zenglin Zhang, Ning Wang, and Wenting Han, "Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Soil for Wireless Underground Sensor Networks," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 30, 11-23, 2013.


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