Progress In Electromagnetics Research M
ISSN: 1937-8726
Home | Search | Notification | Authors | Submission | PIERS Home | EM Academy
Home > Vol. 40 > pp. 101-110


By A. Musa, S. O. Bashir, and A. H. Abdalla

Full Article PDF (146 KB)

Suspended particles in the atmosphere during sand and dust storms have numerous consequences on electromagnetic wave propagation in arid regions. The electromagnetic wave signal may suffer attenuation and cross polarization upon encounter with the suspended particles. However, meager information has hitherto been reported about effect of storms on the telecommunication systems operating in such regions. This paper presents a survey of current understanding of the electromagnetic wave propagation in sand and dust storms. A review of the literature covering electromagnetic scattering theory and applications is given. The review describes the principle of approach and technology adopted for the investigation highlighting both strengths and drawbacks. Detailed parametric assessment of the effects of storms on wave propagation as it concerns signal attenuation and cross polarization is also carried out. The results demonstrate that most authors have calculated the attenuation effect, revealing that it is not very significant unless very high suspended dust densities are assumed (i.e. during severe sand and dust storms). A few papers indicate the possibility of more significant cross polarisation. The obvious gap in knowledge of this field is finally also clearly established.

A. Musa, S. O. Bashir, and A. H. Abdalla, "Review and Assessment of Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Sand and Dust Storms at Microwave and Millimeter Wave Bands --- Part II," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 40, 101-110, 2014.

1. Al-Hafid, H. T., S. C. Gupta, and M. Ibrahim, "Propagation of microwaves under adverse sand storm conditions of Iraq," Proc. North American Radio Science Meeting, URSI F.5, AP-S, 274, 1980.

2. Ansari, A. J. and B. G. Evans, "Microwave propagation in sand and dust storms," Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng., Vol. 129, 315-322, 1982.

3. Bashir, S. O., "Electromagnetic scattering computation methods for very small particles: Part II," Intern. Conf. on Modelling and Simulation, Published in MS Journal, Vol. 9, Nos. 1-3, 2008.

4. Bashir, S. O., "Statistical modelling of propagation parameters through sand/dust storms at microwave frequencies," IEEE Intern. Conf. in Antennas, Propagation and Systems, Johor Bahru, Malaysia, 2009.

5. Bashir, S. O., A. W. Dissanyake, and N. J. McEwan, "Prediction of forward scattering and cross polarisation due to dry and moist haboob and sand dust storms in sudan in the 9.4GHz band," International Telecommunication Union Journal, Vol. 47, VII-Geneva, 1980.

6. Bashir, S. O., A. A. Musa, A. A. Hassan, and O. O. Khalifa, "Electromagnetic scattering computation methods for very small spheroidal dust particles: Theory and applications," Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research (Mathematical Applications in Engineering), Vol. 13, No. 13, 38-42, 2013.

7. Chen, X., "Observe the influence of sand dust storm on radio communication in Gulf War," Electric Wave Antenna, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1991.

8. Chen, H. Y. and C. Ku, "Microwave and millimeter wave attenuation in sand and dust storms," IEEE International Conference on Microwave, Radar and Wireless Communication, 527-532, Warsaw, Poland, 2012.

9. Dong, Q., J. D. Xu, Y. L. Li, H. Zhang, and M. J. Wang, "Calculation of microwave attenuation effect due to charged sand particles," J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves, Vol. 32, 55-63, 2011.

10. Dong, Q., J. Xu, Y. Li, and M. Wang, "Microwave propagation in charged sand particles," 2010 9th International Symposium on Antennas Propagation and EM Theory (ISAPE), 379-382, 2010.

11. Dong, X. Y. and H. Y. Chen, "Microwave and millimeter wave attenuation in sand and dust storms," IEEE Antennas Wireless Propagat. Lett., Vol. 10, 469-471, 2011.

12. Elabdin, Z., M. R. Islam, O. O. Khalifa, and H. E. A. Raouf, "Mathematical model for the prediction of microwave signal attenuation due to duststorm," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 6, 139-153, 2009.

13. Ghobrial, S. I. and S. M. Sharief, "Microwave attenuation and cross polarization in dust storms," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 35, No. 4, 418-425, 1987.

14. Goldhirsh, J., "Attenuation and backscatter from a derived two-dimensional duststorm model," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 49, No. 12, 1703-1711, 2001.

15. Haddad, S., M. J. Salman, and R. K. Jha, "Effects of dust/sandstorm on some aspects of microwave propagation," ESA Special Publication, Vol. 194, 153-162, 1983.

16. Islam, M. D. R., Z. E. Omer Elshaikh, O. O. Khalifa, A. H. M. Z. Alam, S. Khan, and A. W. Naji, "Prediction of signal attenuation due to duststorms using MIE scattering," IIUM Engineering Journal, Vol. 11, No. 1, 71-87, 2010.

17. Jervase, J. and S. Sharif, "Influence of duststorms and reflector tolerance on cross polarization of earth satellite links," Proceedings Arabsat Symposium, 166-169, Riyadh, Saudi, 1988.

18. Kahnert, M. F., "Numerical methods in electromagnetic scattering theory," Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer, Vol. 79, No. 80, 775-824, 2003.

19. Kanellopoulos, J. D. and A. D. Panagopoulos, "Ice crystals and raindrop canting angle affecting the performance of a satellite system suffering from differential rain attenuation and cross-polarization," Radio Sci., Vol. 36, No. 5, 927-940, 2001.

20. Louza, S. and N. F. Audeh, "Effect of dust on microwave radiometry," 1992 IEEE Aerospace Applications Conference, Digest, 107-116, 1992.

21. McEwan, N. and S. Bashir, "Microwave propagation in sand and dust storms: The theoretical basis for particle alignment," International Conference on Antennas and Propagation, IEE Conference Publication, ICAP 82, Vol. 219, 227-231, 1983.

22. Musa, A. and S. O. Bashir, "Electromagnetic waves propagation in dust storms at millimeter wave band," Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences (JETEAS), Vol. 4, No. 2, 162-167, Scholar Link Research Institute, 2013, ISSN: 2141-7016.

23. Musa, A. and S. O. Bashir, "Prediction of cross polarization discrimination at millimeter wave band due to dust storms," ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Vol. 8, No. 7, 465-472, 2013.

24. Renno, N. O., A. S. Wong, and S. K. Atreya, "Electrical discharges in the martian dust devils and dust storms," Sixth International Conference on Mars, Pasadena, California, 2003.

25. Ryde, J. W., "Echo intensities and attenuation due to clouds, rain, hail, sand and dust storms at centimetre wavelengths,", Report 7831, 22-24, Research Laboratories of General Electric Company Ltd., 1941.

26. Silvester, P. P. and R. L. Ferrari, Finite Elements for Electrical Engineers, Cambridge Univ Press, New York, 1996.

27. Sizun, H., Radio Wave Propagation for Telecommunication Application, Springer-Verlag, Paris, France, 2003.

28. Taflove, A., Ed., Advances in Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-difference Time-domain Method, Artech House, Boston, 1998.

29. Yin, W. and J. Xiao, "Cross polarization effect of circularly polarized microwave, millimeter wave propagation in the air suspending dust particles," Chinese J. Radio Sci., Vol. 5, 44-50, 1990.

30. Zheng, X. J., N. Huang, and Y. H. Zhou, "Laboratory measurement of electrification of wind-blown sands and simulation of its effect on sand saltation movement," J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 108, 4322, 2003.

31. Zhou, Y., Q. Hea, and X. Zheng, "Attenuation of electromagnetic wave propagation in sandstorms incorporating charged sand particles," The European Physical Journal E, Vol. 17, 181-187, 2005.

32. Chu, T. S., "Effect of sand storms on microwave propagation," Bell Syst. Tech. J, Vol. 5, 549-555, 1979.

33. Bashir, S. O. and N. J. McEwan, "Microwave propagation in dust storms: A review," IEE Proceedings, Vol. 133, No. 3, Pt. H, 241-247, 1986.

34. Ahmed, A. S., A. Ali, and M. A. Alhaider, "Airborne dust size analysis for tropospheric propagation of millimetric waves into dust storms," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., Vol. 25, No. 5, 593-599, 1987.

© Copyright 2010 EMW Publishing. All Rights Reserved