Vol. 47

Front:[PDF file] Back:[PDF file]
Latest Volume
All Volumes
All Issues

The Age-Dependence of Personal Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields of Wireless Communications in Indoor Environments

By Enver Hamiti, Mimoza Ibrani, Luan Ahma, Doruntinё Berisha, Vesa Broja, and Rreze Halili
Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 47, 121-128, 2016


The ever-growing usage of new information and communication technology devices by different age groups is followed with public concerns of exposure induced biological effects. The aim of this paper is to assess and compare personal exposure levels to electromagnetic fields of wireless communications for different age-groups, including children, under the same exposure conditions.Assessment of personal exposure of the following age groups: 08-15, 16-20, 21-35 and 36-60 years old is conducted with sophisticated tri-axial E-field frequency selective personal exposure meters, enabling measurements of electric field strength in 14 pre-defined frequency bands in the range of 80 MHz-6 GHz. Participants are selected to be with similar social conditions and occupation, including children, students and administrative employees. The measurements were conducted in typical residential environments collecting 161 280 measurement samples. The mean value of power density of different wireless technologies is presented for each age-group, including the contribute of specific wireless technology to the total personal exposure. The highest personal exposure values per frequency band for all age groups are in GSM and Wi-Fi 2G. The results show a difference in mean power density levels between different age groups for the same exposure environment. Ultimately, all measured values were far below international safety guidelines and exposure limits.


Enver Hamiti, Mimoza Ibrani, Luan Ahma, Doruntinё Berisha, Vesa Broja, and Rreze Halili, "The Age-Dependence of Personal Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields of Wireless Communications in Indoor Environments," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 47, 121-128, 2016.


    1. Foster, K. R., "A world awash with wireless devices: Radio-frequency exposure issues," IEEE Microwave Magazine, Vol. 14, No. 2, 73-84, 2013.

    2. Eurobarometer, Eurobarometer 347, Wave 73.3, Electromagnetic Fields, Directorate General for Health and Consumer Affairs, Brussels, Belgium, 2010.

    3. Dürrenberger, G., J. Fröhlich, M. Rösli, and M. O. Mattsson, "EMF monitoring - Concepts, activities, gaps and options," International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Vol. 11, No. 9, 9460-9479, 2014.

    4. International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, "Guidelines for limiting exposure to time-varying electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields (up to 300 GHz)," Health Physics, Vol. 74, No. 4, 494-522, 1998.

    5. Ibrani, M., L. Ahma, E. Hamiti, and J. Haxhibeqiri, "Derivation of electromagnetic properties of child biological tissues at radio frequencies," Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 25, 87-100, 2011.

    6. Gabriel, C., "Dielectric properties of biological tissue: variation with age," Bioelectromagnetics, Vol. 26, No. S7, S12-S18, 2005.

    7. Redmayne, M., "International policy and advisory response regarding children’s exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF)," Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 1-9, 2015, ahead-of-print.

    8. Gajšek, P., P. Ravazzani, J. Wiart, J. Grellier, T. Samaras, and G. Thuróczy, "Electromagnetic field exposure assessment in Europe radiofrequency fields (10 MHz–6 GHz)," Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, Vol. 25, No. 1, 37-44, 2015.

    9. Mann, S., "Assessing personal exposures to environmental radiofrequency electromagnetic fields," Comptes Rendus Physique, Vol. 11, No. 9, 541-555, 2010.

    10. De Miguel-Bilbao, S., J. García, V. Ramos, and J. Blas, "Assessment of human body influence on exposure measurements of electric field in indoor enclosures," Bioelectromagnetics, Vol. 36, No. 2, 118-132, 2015.

    11. Kwak, S. I., J. H. Kwon, and Y. J. Yoon, "Design of the E-field probe for mobile communication bands in the personal exposure meter," The 18th IEEE International Symposium on Consumer Electronics (ISCE 2014), 1-2, IEEE, June 2014.

    12. Lauer, O., H. Benedickter, G. Neubauer, M. Roosli, and J. Frohlich, "Calibration measurement setup for band-selective personal exposure meters," 2010 Asia-Pacific Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility (APEMC), 381-384, IEEE, April 2010.

    13. Vanveerdeghem, P., P. Van Torre, A. Thielens, J. Knockaert, W. Joseph, and H. Rogier, "Compact personal distributed wearable exposimeter," IEEE Sensors Journal, Vol. 5, No. 8, 2014.

    14. Urbinello, D., W. Joseph, L. Verloock, L. Martens, and M. Röösli, "Temporal trends of radio-frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure in everyday environments across European cities," Environmental Research, Vol. 134, 134-142, 2014.

    15. Gryz, K., J. Karpowicz, W. Leszko, and P. Zradzinski, "The frequency-selective evaluation of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation in the public accessible indoor environment," 2014 International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC Europe), 381-384, IEEE, September 2014.

    16. Thuróczy, G., F. Molnár, G. Jánossy, N. Nagy, G. Kubinyi, J. Bakos, and J. Szabó, "Personal RF exposimetry in urban area," Annals of Telecommunications-annales des télécommunications, Vol. 63, No. 1-2, 87-96, 2008.

    17. Bolte, J. F. and T. Eikelboom, "Personal radiofrequency electromagnetic field measurements in the Netherlands: Exposure level and variability for everyday activities, times of day and types of area," Environment International, Vol. 48, 133-142, 2012.

    18. Ibrani, M., E. Hamiti, L. Ahma, R. Halili, V. Shala, and D. Berisha, "Narrowband frequency-selective up-link and down-link evaluation of daily personal-exposure induced by wireless operating networks," Wireless Networks, Advance online publication 10.1007/s11276-016-1215-1, 2016.

    19. Vermeeren, G., I. Markakis, F. Goeminne, T. Samaras, L. Martens, and W. Joseph, "Spatial and temporal RF electromagnetic field exposure of children and adults in indoor micro environments in Belgium and Greece," Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology, Vol. 113, No. 2, 254-263, 2013.

    20. Juhász, P., J. Bakos, N. Nagy, G. Jánossy, V. Finta, and G. Thuróczy, "RF personal exposimetry on employees of elementary schools, kindergartens and day nurseries as a proxy for child exposures," Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology, Vol. 107, No. 3, 449-455, 2011.

    21. Ibrani, M., L. Ahma, and E. Hamiti, "Assessment of the exposure of children to electromagnetic fields from wireless communication devices in home environments," IET Communications, Vol. 8, No. 12, 2222-2228, 2014.

    22. Liu, N., D. Plets, S. K. Goudos, L. Martens, and W. Joseph, "Multi-objective network planning optimization algorithm: Human exposure, power consumption, cost, and capacity," Wireless Networks, Vol. 21, No. 3, 841-857, 2015.

    23. Thomas, S., A. K¨uhnlein, S. Heinrich, G. Praml, R. von Kries, and K. Radon, "Exposure to mobile telecommunication networks assessed using personal dosimetry and well-being in children and adolescents: The German MobilEe-study," Environ Health, Vol. 7, No. 1, 55, 2008.

    24. Heinrich, S., S. Thomas, C. Heumann, R. von Kries, and K. Radon, "The impact of exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields on chronic well-being in young people - A cross-sectional study based on personal dosimetry," Environment International, Vol. 37, No. 1, 26-30, 2011.

    25. Kheifets, L., M. Repacholi, R. Saunders, and E. Van Deventer, "The sensitivity of children to electromagnetic fields," Pediatrics, Vol. 116, No. 2, 303-313, 2005.

    26. Valič, B., B. Kos, and P. Gajšek, "Typical exposure of children to EMF: Exposimetry and dosimetry," Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ncu057, 2014.