PIER M
 
Progress In Electromagnetics Research M
ISSN: 1937-8726
Home | Search | Notification | Authors | Submission | PIERS Home | EM Academy
Home > Vol. 51 > pp. 19-31

RETRIEVAL OF REFRACTIVITY PROFILE WITH GROUND-BASED RADIO OCCULTATION BY USING AN IMPROVED HARMONY SEARCH ALGORITHM

By M.-M. Chiou and J.-F. Kiang

Full Article PDF (784 KB)

Abstract:
A ground-based radio occultation (RO) technique is proposed to retrieve the atmospheric refractivity profile around a specific region at a higher sampling rate than conventional space-based RO techniques, making it more suitable for regional weather studies. A harmony search (HS) algorithm with ensemble consideration (HS-EC) based on atmospheric physics is proposed to retrieve the refractivity profile more efficiently without being trapped in suboptimal solutions. The highest altitude of profile is extended to 95 km from 40 km adopted in conventional ground-based RO techniques, leading to more accurate results.

Citation:
M.-M. Chiou and J.-F. Kiang, "Retrieval of Refractivity Profile with Ground-Based Radio Occultation by Using an Improved Harmony Search Algorithm," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 51, 19-31, 2016.
doi:10.2528/PIERM16052505

References:
1. Liou, Y. A., A. G. Pavelyev, S. F. Liu, A. A. Pavelyev, N. Yen, C. Y. Huang, and C. J. Fong, "FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC GPS radio occultation mission: Preliminary results," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing, Vol. 45, No. 11, 3813-3826, Nov. 2007.
doi:10.1109/TGRS.2007.903365

2. Chiu, T. C., Y. A. Liou, W. H. Yeh, and C. Y. Huang, "NCURO data-retrieval algorithm in FORMOSAT-3 GPS radio-occultation mission," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing, Vol. 46, No. 11, 3395-3405, Nov. 2008.
doi:10.1109/TGRS.2008.2005038

3. Kursinski, E. R., et al., "Initial results of radio occultation observations of Earth’s atmosphere using the global positioning system," Science, Vol. 271, No. 5252, 1107-1110, Feb. 1996.
doi:10.1126/science.271.5252.1107

4. Xie, F., J. S. Haase, and S. Syndergaard, "Profiling the atmosphere using the airborne GPS radio occultation technique: A sensitivity study," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing, Vol. 46, No. 11, 3424-3435, 2008.
doi:10.1109/TGRS.2008.2004713

5. Healy, S. B., A. M. Jupp, and C. Marquardt, "Forecast impact experiment with GPS radio occultation measurements," Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 32, No. 3, L03804, Feb. 2005.
doi:10.1029/2004GL020806

6. Le Marshall, J., et al., "The application of radio occultation observations for climate monitoring and numerical weather prediction in the Australian region," Aust. Meteorol. Oceanog. J., Vol. 62, 323-334, Sep. 2012.

7. Yang, S. C., S. H. Chen, S. Y. Chen, C. Y. Huang, and C. S. Chen, "Evaluating the impact of the COSMIC RO bending angle data on predicting the heavy precipitation episode on June 16, 2008 during SoWMEX-IOP8," Month. Weather Rev., Vol. 142, No. 11, 4139-4163, 2014.
doi:10.1175/MWR-D-13-00275.1

8. Pelliccia, F., F. Pacifici, S. Bonafoni, P. Basili, N. Pierdicca, P. Ciotti, and W. J. Emery, "Neural networks for arctic atmosphere sounding from radio occultation data," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing, Vol. 49, No. 12, 4846-4855, Dec. 2011.
doi:10.1109/TGRS.2011.2153859

9. Zhang, K., T. Manning, S. Wu, W. Rohm, D. Silcock, and S. Choy, "Capturing the signature of severe weather events in Australia using GPS measurements," IEEE Selected Topics Appl. Earth Observ. Remote Sensing, Vol. 8, No. 4, 1839-1847, Apr. 2015.
doi:10.1109/JSTARS.2015.2406313

10. Norman, R. J., J. Le Marshall, W. Rohm, B. A. Carter, G. Kirchengast, S. Alexander, C. Liu, and K. Zhang, "Simulating the impact of refractive transverse gradients resulting from a severe troposphere weather event on GPS signal propagation," IEEE Selected Topics Appl. Earth Observ. Remote Sensing, Vol. 8, No. 1, 418-424, Jan. 2015.
doi:10.1109/JSTARS.2014.2344091

11. Chou, Y. H. and J. F. Kiang, "Ducting and turbulence effects on radio-wave propagation in an atmospheric boundary layer," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 60, 301-315, 2014.
doi:10.2528/PIERB14062201

12. Sokolovskiy, S., "Effect of super refraction on inversions of radio occultation signals in the lower troposphere," Radio Science, Vol. 38, No. 3, 24-1-14, Jun. 2003.
doi:10.1029/2002RS002728

13. Von Engeln, A. and J. Teixeira, "A ducting climatology derived from the European centre for medium-range weather forecasts global analysis fields," J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., Vol. 109, No. D18, D18104, Sep. 2004.
doi:10.1029/2003JD004380

14. Zuffada, C., G. A. Hajj, and E. R. Kursinski, "A novel approach to atmospheric profiling with a mountain-based or airborne GPS receiver," J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., Vol. 104, No. D20, 24435-24447, Oct. 1999.
doi:10.1029/1999JD900766

15. Flores, A., J. V.-G. De Arellano, L. P. Gradinarsky, and A. Rius, "Tomography of the lower troposphere using a small dense network of GPS receivers," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing, Vol. 39, No. 2, 439-447, Feb. 2001.
doi:10.1109/36.905252

16. Nilsson, T. and L. Gradinarsky, "Water vapor tomography using GPS phase observations: Simulation results," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing, Vol. 44, No. 10, 2927-2941, Oct. 2006.
doi:10.1109/TGRS.2006.877755

17. Lin, L. K., Z. W. Zhao, Y. R. Zhang, and Q. L. Zhu, "Tropospheric refractivity profiling based on refractivity profile model using single ground-based global positioning system," IET Radar Sonar Navig., Vol. 5, No. 1, 7-11, 2011.
doi:10.1049/iet-rsn.2009.0167

18. Wu, X., X. Wang, and D. Lü, "Retrieval of vertical distribution of tropospheric refractivity through ground-based GPS observation," Adv. Atmos. Sci., Vol. 31, No. 1, 37-47, Jan. 2014.
doi:10.1007/s00376-013-2215-z

19. Sokolovskiy, S. V., C. Rocken, and A. R. Lowry, "Use of GPS for estimation of bending angles of radio waves at low elevations," Radio Science, Vol. 36, No. 3, 473-482, May 2001.
doi:10.1029/2000RS002541

20. Lowry, A. R., C. Rocken, S. V. Sokolovskiy, and K. D. Anderson, "Vertical profiling of atmospheric refractivity from ground-based GPS," Radio Science, Vol. 37, No. 3, 13-1-19, Jun. 2002.
doi:10.1029/2000RS002565

21. Wang, H. G., Z. S. Wu, S. F. Kang, and Z. W. Zhao, "Monitoring the marine atmospheric refractivity profiles by ground-based GPS occultation," IEEE Geosci. Remote Sensing Lett., Vol. 10, No. 4, 962-965, Jul. 2013.
doi:10.1109/LGRS.2012.2227294

22. Nievergelt, J., "Exhaustive search, combinatorial optimization and enumeration: Exploring the potential of raw computing power," Sofsem 2000: Theory and Practice of Informatics, 18-35, Springer, 2000.
doi:10.1007/3-540-44411-4_2

23. Rocken, C., Y. H. Kuo, W. S. Schreiner, D. Hunt, S. Sokolovskiy, and C. McCormick, "COSMIC system descriptions," Terr. Atmos. Ocean. Sci., Vol. 11, No. 1, 21-52, Mar. 2000.

24. Geem, Z. W., Recent Advances in Harmony Search Algorithm, 1-10, Springer, 2010.
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-04317-8_1

25. Gaikovich, K. P. and M. I. Sumin, "Reconstruction of the altitude profiles of the refractive index, pressure, and temperature of the atmosphere from observations of astronomical refraction," Izvestiya, Atmos. Ocean. Phys., Vol. 22, 710-715, 1986.

26. Kirchengast, G., J. Hafner, and W. Poetzi, "The CIRA86aQ_UoG model: An extension of the CIRA-86 monthly tables including humidity tables and a Fortran95 global moist air climatology model," Euro. Space Agency, IMG/UoG Tech. Rep., Vol. 8. 1999.

27. Nafisi, V., L. Urquhart, M. C. Santos, F. G. Nievinski, J. Bohm, D. D. Wijaya, H. Schuh, A. A. Ardalan, T. Hobiger, and R. Ichikawa, "Comparison of ray-tracing packages for troposphere delays," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing, Vol. 50, No. 2, 469-481, 2012.
doi:10.1109/TGRS.2011.2160952

28. Dee, D. P., et al., "The ERA-interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system," Q. J. R. Meterorol. Soc., Vol. 137, 533-597, Apr. 2011.

29. Hedin, A. E., "Extension of the MSIS thermosphere model into the middle and lower atmosphere," J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., Vol. 96, No. A2, 1159-1172, Feb. 1991.
doi:10.1029/90JA02125

30. Yang, S.-H. and J.-F. Kiang, "Optimization of sparse linear arrays using harmony search algorithms," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 63, No. 11, 4732-4738, Nov. 2015.
doi:10.1109/TAP.2015.2476518

31. Jacobson, M. Z., Fundamental of Atmospheric Modeling, Cambridge Univ. Press, 2005.
doi:10.1017/CBO9781139165389

32. Ratnaweera, A., S. Halgamuge, and H. C. Watson, "Self-organizing hierarchical particle swarm optimizer with time-varying acceleration coefficients," IEEE Trans. Evolution. Comput., Vol. 8, No. 3, 240-255, Jun. 2004.
doi:10.1109/TEVC.2004.826071

33. Hajj, G. A., E. R. Kursinski, L. J. Romans, W. I. Bertiger, and S. S. Leroy, "A technical description of atmospheric sounding by GPS occultation," J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys., Vol. 64, No. 4, 451-469, 2002.
doi:10.1016/S1364-6826(01)00114-6

34. Geem, Z. W., "Optimal cost design of water distribution networks using harmony search," Eng. Optim., Vol. 38, No. 03, 259-277, 2006.
doi:10.1080/03052150500467430


© Copyright 2010 EMW Publishing. All Rights Reserved