This paper investigates an angle of arrival (AOA) and polarization joint estimation algorithm for an L-shaped electromagnetic vector sensor array based on rank-(L, L, 1) block component decomposition (BCD) tensor modeling. The proposed algorithm can take full advantage of the multidimensional information of electromagnetic signal to obtain the parameter estimation more accurately than the matrix-based method and the existing tensor decomposition method. In addition, the algorithm can accomplish pair-matching of estimated parameters automatically. The numerical experiments demonstrate that even under the conditions of low SNR and limited snapshots, the proposed algorithm can still steadily achieve high detection probability with low estimation error, which is important for practical applications.
2. Tan, K.-C., K.-C. Ho, and A. Nehorai, "Linear independence of steering vectors of an electromagnetic vector sensor," IEEE Trans. Signal Process., Vol. 44, No. 12, 3099-3107, Dec. 1996.
3. Wong, K. T. and M. D. Zoltowski, "Uni-vector-sensor esprit for multisource azimuth, elevation, and polarization estimation," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 45, No. 10, 1467-1474, 1997.
4. Cichocki, A., D. Mandic, L. De Lathauwer, G. Zhou, Q. Zhao, C. Caiafa, and H. A. Phan, "Tensor decompositions for signal processing applications: From two-way to multiway component analysis," IEEE Signal Process. Mag., Vol. 32, No. 2, 145-163, 2015.
5. Sidiropoulos, N. D., R. Bro, and G. B. Giannakis, "Parallel factor analysis in sensor array processing," IEEE Trans. Signal Process., Vol. 48, No. 8, 2377-2388, 2000.
6. Gao, Y.-F., L. Zou, and Q. Wan, "A two-dimensional arrival angles estimation for L-shaped array based on tensor decomposition," AEU Int. J. Electron. Commun., Vol. 69, No. 4, 736-744, 2015.
7. Miron, S., X. Guo, and D. Brie, "DOA estimation for polarized sources on a vector-sensor array by parafac decomposition of the fourth-order covariance tensor," 16th European Signal Processing Conference, 1-5, Aug. 2008.
8. Guo, X., S. Miron, D. Brie, S. Zhu, and X. Liao, "A candecomp/parafac perspective on uniqueness of DOA estimation using a vector sensor array," IEEE Trans. Signal Process., Vol. 59, No. 7, 3475-3481, Jul. 2011.
9. Forster, P., G. Ginolhac, and M. Boizard, "Derivation of the theoretical performance of a tensor music algorithm," Signal Process., Vol. 129, 97-105, 2016.
10. Stegeman, A., "Candecomp/Parafac: From diverging components to a decomposition in block terms," SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Appl., Vol. 33, No. 2, 209-215, 2012.
11. De Lathauwer, L., "Decompositions of a higher-order tensor in block terms - Part ii: Definitions and uniqueness," SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Appl., Vol. 30, No. 3, 1033-1066, 2008.
12. De Lathauwer, L. and D. Nion, "Decompositions of a higher-order tensor in block terms - Part iii: Alternating least squares algorithms," SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Appl., Vol. 30, No. 3, 1067-1083, 2008.
13. De Lathauwer, L., "Blind separation of exponential polynomials and the decomposition of a tensor in rank-(l r,l r,1) terms," SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Appl., Vol. 32, No. 4, 1451-1474, 2011.
14. Zhao, Q., C. F. Caiafa, D. P. Mandic, Z. C. Chao, Y. Nagasaka, N. Fujii, L. Zhang, and A. Cichocki, "Higher order partial least squares (hopls): A generalized multilinear regression method," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell., Vol. 35, No. 7, 1660-1673, 2013.
15. Nie, X. and P. Wei, "Array aperture extension algorithm for 2-d DOA estimation with L-shaped array," Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 52, 63-69, 2015.
16. Comon, P., X. Luciani, and A. L. De Almeida, "Tensor decompositions, alternating least squares and other tales," J. Chemom., Vol. 23, No. 7-8, 393-405, 2009.
17. Sorber, L., M. Van Barel, and L. De Lathauwer, "Optimization-based algorithms for tensor decompositions: Canonical polyadic decomposition, decomposition in rank-(l r,l r,1) terms, and a new generalization," SIAM J. Optim., Vol. 23, No. 2, 695-720, 2013.
18. Miron, S., N. Le Bihan, and J. I. Mars, "Vector-sensor music for polarized seismic sources localization," EURASIP J. Adv. Signal Process., Vol. 2005, No. 1, 1-11, 2005.
19. Zhang, X. and D. Xu, "Deterministic blind beamforming for electromagnetic vector sensor array," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 84, 363-377, 2008.