PIER M
 
Progress In Electromagnetics Research M
ISSN: 1937-8726
Home | Search | Notification | Authors | Submission | PIERS Home | EM Academy
Home > Vol. 63 > pp. 207-215

FREQUENCY DIVERSE ARRAY USING BUTLER MATRIX FOR SECURE WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS.

By S. Y. Nusenu, H. Chen, W.-Q. Wang, S. Ji, and O. A. K. Opuni-Boachie

Full Article PDF (285 KB)

Abstract:
An antenna array system configured to offer directional dependent modulation has the capability to prevent eavesdroppers' attacks, thereby enhancing the security level of data transmission. In this paper, we propose artificial-noise-aided directional modulation transmitter utilizing a 4×4 Butler matrix with a four-element 2-D (i.e., range and angle) frequency diverse array (FDA) antenna to achieve secure transmissions, which outperforms the 1-D (i.e, angle) phased array scheme. The proposed scheme utilizes FDA Butler matrix excited by information data and injected artificial noise interference which radiates along all directions except the main information data direction. Thus, the radiation pattern during a particular transmission period will be range-angle dependent. The proposed scheme is evaluated by using constellation points in IQ space, bit error probability (BER), and secrecy capacity. Simulation results demonstrate that: 1) our scheme scrambles the constellation points along undesired direction(s) in both amplitude and phase, while preserving a clear constellation points along the pre-specified direction(s); 2) the scheme achieves better BER and secrecy capacity than that of the phased array based directional modulation scheme and other existing scheme; 3) the scheme significantly improve security performance especially in the range dimension.

Citation:
S. Y. Nusenu, H. Chen, W.-Q. Wang, S. Ji, and O. A. K. Opuni-Boachie, "Frequency Diverse Array Using Butler Matrix for Secure Wireless Communications.," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 63, 207-215, 2018.
doi:10.2528/PIERM17101305

References:
1. Babakhani, A., D. B. Rutledge, and A. Hajimiri, "Transmitter architectures based on near-field direct antenna modulation," IEEE Journal of Solid-state Circuits, Vol. 43, No. 12, 2674-2692, Dec. 2008.
doi:10.1109/JSSC.2008.2004864

2. Daly, M. P. and J. T. Bernhard, "Directional modulation technique for phased arrays," IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 57, No. 9, 2633-2640, Sep. 2009.
doi:10.1109/TAP.2009.2027047

3. Alotaibi, N. and K. A. Hamdi, "Switched phased-array transmission architecture for secure millimeter-wave wireless communication," IEEE Trans. on Commu., Vol. 64, No. 3, 1303-1312, Mar. 2016.
doi:10.1109/TCOMM.2016.2519403

4. Ding, Y. and V. Fusco, "Sidelobe manipulation using Butler matrix for 60 GHz physical layer secure wireless communication," 2013 Loughborough Antennas and Propagation Conference, 61-65, Loughborough, UK, Nov. 2013.

5. Campo, M., W. Simon, and R. Baggen, "Steerable antenna array at 24 GHz using Butler matrices and MEMS-switches," Proc. of IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation, 1-2, Kamp-Lintfort, Germany, Jul. 2012.

6. Bhowmik, W. and S. Srivastava, "Optimum design of a 4×4 planar Butler matrix array for WLAN application," Journal of Telecommunications, Vol. 2, No. 1, 68-74, Apr. 2010.

7. Ueno, M., "A systematic design formulation for Butler matrix applied FFT algorithm," IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 29, No. 3, 496-501, 1981.
doi:10.1109/TAP.1981.1142601

8. Ibrahim, S. Z. and M. K. A. Rahim, "Switched beam antenna using omnidirectional antenna array," 2007 Asia-Pacific Conference on Applied Electromagnetics Proceedings, 1-4, Melaka, Malaysia, Dec. 4-6, 2007.

9. Tian, G., J. P. Yang, W, and Wu, "A novel compact Butler matrix without phase shifter," IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Lett., Vol. 24, No. 5, 306-308, May 2014.
doi:10.1109/LMWC.2014.2306898

10. Antonik, P., et al., "Frequency diverse array radars," Proc. of the IEEE Radar Conference, 215-217, Verona, NY, Apr. 2006.

11. Hu, J., et al., "Artificial-noise-aided secure transmission with directional modulation based on random frequency diverse arrays," IEEE Acess, Vol. 5, 1658-1667, Jan. 2017.
doi:10.1109/ACCESS.2017.2653182

12. Wang, W. Q., "DM using frequency diverse array antenna for secure transmission," IET Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 11, No. 3, 336-345, Apr. 2017.
doi:10.1049/iet-map.2016.0303

13. Ding, Y., J. Zhang, and V. Fusco, "Frequency diverse array OFDM transmitter for secure wireless communication," Electronics Lett., Vol. 51, No. 17, 1374-1376, Aug. 20, 2015.
doi:10.1049/el.2015.1491

14. Nusenu, S. Y., W. Q. Wang, and J. Xiong, "Time-modulated frequency diverse array for physical-layer security," IET Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 15, No. 3, 336-345, Apr. 2017.

15. Nusenu, S. Y., W. Q. Wang, and S. Ji, "Secure directional modulation using frequency diverse array antenna," IEEE Radar Conference, 0378-0382, May 2017.

16. Wang, W. Q., "Frequency diverse array antenna: New opportunities," IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, Vol. 57, No. 2, 145-152, Apr. 2015.
doi:10.1109/MAP.2015.2414692

17. Mailloux, R. J., Phased Array Antenna Handbook, Artech House, Inc., Boston, 2005.

18. Goel, S. and R. Negi, "Guaranteeing secrecy using artificial noise," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., Vol. 7, No. 6, 2180-2189, Jun. 2008.
doi:10.1109/TWC.2008.060848

19. Yang, N., S. Yan, J. Yuan, R. Malaney, R. Subramanian, and I. Land, "Artificial noise: Transmission optimization in multi-input single-output wiretap channels," IEEE Trans. Commun., Vol. 63, No. 5, 1771-1783, May 2015.
doi:10.1109/TCOMM.2015.2419634

20. Hu, J., F. Shu, and J. Li, "Robust synthesis method for secure directional modulation with imperfect direction angle," IEEE Commun. Lett., Vol. 20, No. 6, 1084-1087, Jun. 2016.
doi:10.1109/LCOMM.2016.2550022

21. Barry, J. R., E. A. Lee, and D. G. Messerschmitt, Digital Communication, 3rd Ed., Springer, 2004.
doi:10.1007/978-1-4615-0227-2

22. Cheong, S. L. Y. and M. E. Hellman, "The gaussian wire-tap channel," IEEE Trans. Information Theory, Vol. 24, No. 4, 451-456, Jul. 1978.
doi:10.1109/TIT.1978.1055917


© Copyright 2010 EMW Publishing. All Rights Reserved