Progress In Electromagnetics Research M
ISSN: 1937-8726
Home | Search | Notification | Authors | Submission | PIERS Home | EM Academy
Home > Vol. 66 > pp. 183-191


By J. L. Frasch, E. J. Rothwell, P. Chahal, and J. Doroshewitz

Full Article PDF (766 KB)

A process is introduced to design and validate insertable rectangular-waveguide verification standards for the electromagnetic characterization of materials using the Nicolson-Ross-Weir method. Each insertable structure consists of a series of metal steps that acts as a surrogate material exhibiting smooth and predictable permittivity and permeability characteristics across the waveguide band. These known material properties can be used to assess the performance of material characterization systems. Since the verification standards are inserted into the waveguide in the same manner as samples under test, each step in the normal measurement procedure is duplicated. A specific example of an S-band verification standard is presented, with the standard fabricated using two different methods. The first standard is machined from a solid metal block while the second is constructed by metalizing a 3-D printed polymer structure. Comparison of the predicted material parameters to those extracted from experimental data demonstrates the utility of the proposed insertable standards.

J. L. Frasch, E. J. Rothwell, P. Chahal, and J. Doroshewitz, "Insertable Waveguide Verification Standards for the Electromagnetic Characterization of Materials," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 66, 183-191, 2018.

1. Volakis, J. L. and G. Kiziltas, "Novel materials for RF devices," 2007 IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, 1701-1704, Honolulu, HI, 2007.

2. Dimiev, A., W. Lu, K. Zeller, B. Crowgey, L. C. Kempel, and J. M. Tour, "Low-loss, high-permittivity composites made from graphene nanoribbons," ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, Vol. 3, No. 12, 4657-4661, 2011.

3. Koulouridis, S., G. Kiziltas, Y. Zhou, D. Hansford, and J. L. Volakis, "Polymer ceramic composites for microwave applications: Fabrication and performance assessment," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 54, No. 12, 4202-4208, 2006.

4. Verma, A., A. K. Saxena, and D. C. Dube, "Microwave permittivity and permeability of ferrite-polymer thick films," J. Magn. Magn. Mater., Vol. 263, 228-234, 2003.

5. Vinoy, K. J. and R. M. Jha, Radar Absorbing Materials: From Theory to Design and Characterization, Kluwer Academic, Boston, MA, USA, 1996.

6. Feng, Y. B., T. Qiu, and C. Y. Shen, "Absorbing properties and structural design of microwave absorbers based on carbonyl iron and barium ferrite," J. Magn. Magn. Mater., Vol. 318, 8-13, 2007.

7. Shirakata, Y., N. Hidaka, M. Ishitsuka, A. Teramoto, and T. Ohmi, "High permeability and low loss Ni-Fe composite material for high-frequency applications," IEEE Trans. Magn., Vol. 44, No. 9, 2100-2106, 2008.

8. Chen, L. F., C. K. Ong, C. P. Neo, V. V. Varadan, and V. K. Varadan, Microwave Electronics: Measurement and Materials Characterization, Wiley, London, UK, 2004.

9. Ball, J. A. R. and B. Horsfield, "Resolving ambiguity in broadband waveguide permittivity measurements on moist materials," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., Vol. 47, No. 2, 390-392, 1998.

10. Larsson, C., D. Sjöberg, and L. Elmkvist, "Waveguide measurements of the permittivity and permeability at temperatures of up to 1000˚C," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., Vol. 60, No. 8, 2872-2880, 2011.

11. Nicolson, A. M. and G. F. Ross, "Measurement of the intrinsic properties of materials by time-domain techniques," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., Vol. 19, No. 4, 377-382, 1970.

12. Weir, W. B., "Automatic measurement of complex dielectric constant and permeability at microwave frequencies," Proc. IEEE, Vol. 62, No. 1, 33-36, 1974.

13. Baker-Jarvis, J., M. D. Janezic, J. H. Gosvenor, and R. G. Geyer, Transmission/Reflection and Short-Circuit Line Methods for Measuring Permittivity and Permeability, NIST Tech. Note 1355, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, DC, USA, 1992.

14. Baker-Jarvis, J., M. D. Janezic, B. F. Riddle, R. T. Johnk, P. Kabos, C. L. Holloway, R. G. Geyer, and J. H. Gosvenor, Measuring the Permittivity and Permeability of Lossy Materials: Solids, Liquids, Metals, Building Materials, and Negative-Index Materials, NIST Tech. Note 1536, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, DC, USA, 2005.

15. ASTM Standard D5568, "Standard test method for measuring relative complex permittivity and relative magnetic permeability of solid materials at microwave frequencies using waveguide," ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2008.

16. Sharma, S. and D. Kaur, "Measurement of complex permittivity of polystyrene composite at 11.64 GHz using cavity perturbation technique," Applied Computational Electromagnetic Society Journal, Vol. 31, No. 1, 92-97, 2016.

17. Bridges, W. B., M. B. Klein, and E. Schweig, "Measurement of the dielectric constant and loss tangent of thallium mixed halide crystals KRS-5 and KRS-6 at 95 GHz," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., Vol. 30, No. 3, 286-292, 1982.

18. Baker-Jarvis, J., B. Riddle, and M. D. Janezic, Dielectric and Magnetic Properties of Printed Wiring Boards and Other Substrate Materials, NIST Tech. Note 1512, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, DC, USA, 1999.

19. Barber, J., J. C. Weatherall, B. T. Smith, S. Duffy, S. J. Goettler, and R. A. Krauss, "Millimeter wave measurements of explosives and simulants," Proc. SPIE 7670, Passive Millimeter-Wave Imaging Technology XIII, 76700E, April 27, 2010.

20. Baharudin, E., A. Ismail, A. R. H. Alhawari, E. S. Zainudin, D. L. A. A. Majid, and F. C. Seman, "Investigate of wave absorption performance for oil palmfrond and empty fruit bunch at 5.8 GHz," International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences, Vol. 9, 335-348, 2017.

21. Crowgey, B. R., J. Tang, E. J. Rothwell, B. Shanker, and L. C. Kempel, "A waveguide verification standard design procedure for the microwave characterization of magnetic materials," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 150, 29-40, 2015.

22. Deb, K., Multi-Objective Optimization using Evolutionary Algorithms, John Wiley & Sons, LTD, Chichester, United Kingdom, 2001.

23. Rothwell, E. J., J. L. Frasch, S. M. Ellison, P. Chahal, and R. O. Ouedraogo, "Analysis of the Nicolson-Ross-Weir method for characterizing the electromagnetic properties of engineered materials," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 157, 31-47, 2016.

24. D’Auria, M., W. J. Otter, J. Hazell, B. T. W. Gillatt, C. Long-Collins, N. M. Ridler, and S. Lucyszyn, "3-D printed metal-pipe rectangular waveguides," IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Manuf. Technol., Vol. 5, No. 9, 1339-1349, 2015.

25. Otter, W. J., N. M. Ridler, H. Yasukochi, K. Soeda, K. Konishi, J. Yumoto, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and S. Lucyszyn, "3D printed 1.1 THz waveguides," Electron. Lett., Vol. 53, No. 7, 471-473, 2017.

© Copyright 2010 EMW Publishing. All Rights Reserved