Progress In Electromagnetics Research M
ISSN: 1937-8726
Home | Search | Notification | Authors | Submission | PIERS Home | EM Academy
Home > Vol. 79 > pp. 167-174


By P. Arora and H. V. Awasthi

Full Article PDF (575 KB)

We engineer very low aspect ratio Aluminum (Al) based periodic plasmonic nanostructures with period ≈ resonance wavelength for enhanced refractive index and thickness sensing, which offer to access complete ultraviolet-visible-near infrared spectral range for SPR sensors. Al-based periodic nanostructures on top of a thin homogeneous Al metal coated on a BK-7 glass substrate were designed by systematic variation of geometrical parameters using Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis and finite elements full wave solver, while, taking into account applicable fabrication constraints. The reason of adding a thin layer of homogeneous Al metal between the nanostructure and glass substrate was to convert the signature of Surface Plasmons (SPs) from transmission dips to transmission peaks, using ±1st order diffraction mode. The shift in SP mode excited on the nanostructure-analyte interface was used to measure the variation in refractive index, and the number of waveguide modes with the increase in the thickness of the analyte was used to capture the variation in thickness of the analyte. The proposed nanostructures of period 400 nm and an aspect ratio of 0.1 offered a sensitivity of 400 nm/RIU and full width at half maximum of 18 nm resulting in a figure of merit of 22. These plasmonic nanostructures have potential to be used as refractive index and thickness sensor due to a high figure of merit, high localization of the field, and very low aspect ratio that is needed to maintain laminar flow of analyte.

P. Arora and H. V. Awasthi, "Aluminum-Based Engineered Plasmonic Nanostructures for the Enhanced Refractive Index and Thickness Sensing in Ultraviolet-Visible-Near Infrared Spectral Range," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 79, 167-174, 2019.

1. Valsecchi, C. and A. G. Brolo, "Periodic metallic nanostructures as plasmonic chemical sensors," Langmuir, Vol. 29, No. 19, 5638-5649, 2013.

2. Chung, T., S. Y. Lee, E. Y. Song, H. Chun, and B. Lee, "Plasmonic nanostructures for nano-scale bio-sensing," Sensors, Vol. 11, No. 11, 10907-10929, 2011.

3. Špačková, B., P. Wrobel, M. Bocková, and J. Homola, "Optical biosensors based on plasmonic nanostructures: A review," Proc. IEEE, Vol. 104, No. 12, 2380-2408, 2016.

4. Arora, P. and A. Krishnan, "Imaging the engineered polarization states of surface plasmon polaritons at visible wavelengths," J. Light. Technol., Vol. 32, No. 24, 4816-4822, 2014.

5. Roh, S., T. Chung, and B. Lee, "Overview of the characteristics of micro- and nano-structured surface plasmon resonance sensors," Sensors, Vol. 11, No. 2, 1565-1588, 2011.

6. Homola, J., S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: Review," Sensors Actuators B Chem., Vol. 54, 3-15, 1999.

7. Stewart, M. E., C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, "Nanostructured plasmonic sensors," Chem. Rev., Vol. 108, No. 2, 494-521, 2008.

8. González-Campuzano, R., J. M. Saniger, and D. Mendoza, "Plasmonic resonances in hybrid systems of aluminum nanostructured arrays and few-layer graphene within the UV-IR spectral range," Nanotechnology, Vol. 28, No. 465704, 1-9, 2017.

9. Lecarme, O., Q. Sun, K. Ueno, and H. Misawa, "Robust and versatile light absorption at near-infrared wavelengths by plasmonic aluminum nanorods," ACS Photonics, Vol. 1, No. 6, 538-546, 2014.

10. Su, W., G. Zheng, and X. Li, "Design of a highly sensitive surface plasmon resonance sensor using aluminum-based diffraction gratings," Opt. Commun., Vol. 285, 4603-4607, 2012.

11. Martin, J. and J. Plain, "Fabrication of aluminum nanostructures for plasmonics," J. Phys. D. Appl. Phys., Vol. 48, No. 184002, 1-17, 2015.

12. Li, W., Y. Qiu, L. Zhang, L. Jiang, Z. Zhou, H. Chen, and J. Zhou, "Aluminum nanopyramid array with tunable ultraviolet-visible-infrared wavelength plasmon resonances for rapid detection of carbohydrate antigen 199," Biosens. Bioelectron., Vol. 79, 500-507, 2016.

13. Chowdhury, M. H., K. Ray, S. K. Gray, J. Pond, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Aluminum nanoparticles as substrates for metal-enhanced fluorescence in the ultraviolet for the label-free detection of biomolecules," Anal. Chem., Vol. 81, No. 4, 1397-1403, 2009.

14. Zhang, X., J. Zhao, A. V. Whitney, J. W. Elam, and R. P. Van Duyne, "Ultrastable substrates for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: Al2O3 overlayers fabricated by atomic layer deposition yield improved anthrax biomarker detection," J. Am. Chem. Soc., Vol. 128, No. 31, 10304-10309, 2006.

15. Tong, J., F. Suo, J. Ma, L. Y. M. Tobing, L. Qian, and D. H. Zhang, "Surface plasmon enhanced infrared photodetection," Optoelectron. Adv., Vol. 2, No. 1, 1-10, 2019.

16. Lu, H., X. Liu, D. Mao, and G. Wang, "Plasmonic nanosensor based on Fano resonance in waveguide-coupled resonators," Opt. Lett., Vol. 37, No. 18, 3780-3782, 2012.

17. Lu, H., S. Dai, Z. Yue, Y. Fan, H. Cheng, J. Di, D. Mao, E. Li, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, "Sb2Te03 topological insulator: Surface plasmon resonance and application in refractive index monitoring," Nanoscale, 2019.

18. Lu, H., Y. Fan, S. Dai, and D. Mao, "Coupling-induced spectral splitting for plasmonic sensing with the ultra-high figure of merit," Chinese Phys. B, Vol. 27, No. 11, 117302, 2018.

19. Moharam, M. G., E. B. Grann, and D. A. Pommet, "Formulation for stable and efficient implementation of the rigorous coupled-wave analysis of binary gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, Vol. 12, No. 5, 1068-1076, 1995.

20. Arora, P. and A. Krishnan, "Fourier plane colorimetric sensing using broadband imaging of surface plasmons and application to biosensing," J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 118, No. 23, 2015.

21. Lee, K. L., C. C. Chang, M. L. You, M. Y. Pan, and P. K. Wei, "Enhancing surface sensing sensitivity of metallic nanostructures using blue-shifted surface plasmon mode and fano resonance," Sci. Rep., Vol. 8, No. 1, 1-12, 2018.

22. Arora, P. and A. Krishnan, "On-chip label-free plasmonic-based imaging microscopy for microfluidics," J. Phys. Commun., Vol. 2, No. 085012, 1-9, 2018.

23. Sun, X., X. Shu, and C. Chen, "Grating surface plasmon resonance sensor: Angular sensitivity, metal oxidization effect of Al-based device in optimal structure," Appl. Opt., Vol. 54, No. 6, 1548-1554, 2015.

24. Jha, R. and A. K. Sharma, "High-performance sensor based on surface plasmon resonance with chalcogenide prism and aluminum for detection in infrared," Opt. Lett., Vol. 34, No. 6, 749-751, 2009.

25. Arora, P. and A. Krishnan, "Analysis of transmission characteristics and multiple resonances in plasmonic gratings coated with homogeneous dielectrics," Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Proceedings, 927-931, Taipei, March 25–28, 2013.

26. Frisbie, S. P., A. Krishnan, X. Xu, L. G. de Peralta, S. A. Nikishin, M.W. Holtz, and A. A. Bernussi, "Optical reflectivity of asymmetric dielectric-metal-dielectric planar structures," J. Light. Technol., Vol. 27, No. 15, 2964-2969, 2009.

© Copyright 2010 EMW Publishing. All Rights Reserved