Progress In Electromagnetics Research M
ISSN: 1937-8726
Home | Search | Notification | Authors | Submission | PIERS Home | EM Academy
Home > Vol. 89 > pp. 151-159


By S. Miclaus and P. Bechet

Full Article PDF (259 KB)

Present contribution introduces, for the first time, the description of human exposure dynamics to mobile phone radiation by implementing the use of in-air integrated energy density (IED) evolution in time. Using the amplitude probability density (APD) function capability of a real-time spectrum analyzer, we demonstrate the differences in exposure due to five different mobile applications running in Long Term Evolution (LTE) standard, based on energy deposited in air: voice call; voice over LTE (VoLTE); video call, file download and live streaming. This exposimetric method will be of great interest also for the new 5G communication standard. The superiority of the approach has three branches: a) integrated APD allows a sample rate of the order of 0.6 x 108/s which is equivalent to an extremely agile tracing of the power level change in LTE communication standard (happening at every 6.67 μs); b) momentary and mean IED accumulation rate can be computed, and minute differences between mobile applications may be observed during their running time; c) the superficial tissue temperature increase may be rapidly estimated after the period of use of one specific wireless application in the GHz frequency range. The method implemented here also provides the means for rapid usage profile expectancy assessment of a mobile phone user.

S. Miclaus and P. Bechet, "Non-Stationary Statistics with Amplitude Probability Density Function for Exposure and Energy Density Reporting Near a Mobile Phone Running 4G Applications," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 89, 151-159, 2020.

1., "International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), Guidelines for limiting exposure to time varying electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields," Health Physics, Vol. 74, 494-522, 1998.

2. IEEE-C95.1, "IEEE standard for safety levels with respect to human exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields, 3 kHz to 300 GHz,", IEEE, NY, USA, 2005.

3. World Health Organization, "Electromagnetic fields and public health: Mobile phones,", Accessed: October 2014, Available from: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs193/en/.

4. IEEE-C95.1, "IEEE standard for safety levels with respect to human exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields, 3 kHz to 300 GHz,", IEEE, NY, USA, 2019.

5. Belyaev, I., Duration of Exposure and Dose in Assessing Nonthermal Biological Effects of Microwaves, Dosimetry in Bioelectromagnetics, 171-184, CRC Press, Florida, 2017.

6. Mortazavi, S. M. J., S. A. R. Mortazavi, and M. Haghani, "Evaluation of the validity of a nonlinear J-shaped dose-response relationship in cancers induced by exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields," J. Biomed. Phys. Eng., Vol. 9, No. 4, 487-494, 2019.

7. Funahashi, D., et al., "Area-averaged transmitted power density at skin surface as metric to estimate surface temperature elevation," IEEE Access, Vol. 6, 77665-77674, 2018.

8. Foster, K., et al., "Thermal analysis of averaging times in radio-frequency exposure limits above 1GHz," IEEE Access, Vol. 6, 74536-74546, 2018.

9. Foster, K. R., et al., "Modeling tissue heating from exposure to radiofrequency energy and relevance of tissue heating to exposure limits: Heating factor," Health Phys., Vol. 115, 295-307, 2018.

10., "International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection Draft — ICNIRP Guidelines, guidelines for limiting exposure to time-varying electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields (100 kHz to 300 GHz),", July 11, 2018.

11. Gandhi, O. P., "Microwave emissions from cell phones exceed safety limits in Europe and the US when touching the body," IEEE Access, Vol. 7, 47050-47052, 2019.

12. Mat, M. H., M. F. B. A. Malek, W. G. Whittow, S. H. Ronald, M. S. Zulkefli, N. Saudin, and L. Mohamed, "The influence of human head model wearing metal-frame spectacles to the changes of SAR and antenna gain: Simulation of frontal face exposure," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 137, 453-473, 2013.

13. Bhargava, D., N. Leeprechanon, P. Rattanadecho, and T. Wessapan, "Specific absorption rate and temperature elevation in the human head due to overexposure to mobile phone radiation with different usage patterns," International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 130, 1178-1188, 2019.

14. Chobineh, A., E. Conil, and J. Wiart, "A comparison between the exposure induced by circuit switched, VoIP and VoLTE calls," BIOEM Conference, Abstract Book, Montpellier, June 23–28, 2019.

15. Krayni, A., et al., "A novel methodology to evaluate uplink exposure by personal devices in wireless networks," IEEE Trans. EMC, Vol. 58, No. 3, 896-906, 2016.

16. Paljanos, A., S. Miclaus, P. Bechet, and C. Munteanu, "Assessment of mobile phone user exposure to UMTS and LTE signals: Comparative near field radiated power levels for various data and voice application services," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 30, No. 9, 1101-1115, 2016.

17. Sarbu, A., A. Bechet, T. Balan, D. Robu, P. Bechet, and S. Miclaus, "Using CCDF statistics for characterizing the radiated power dynamics in the near field of a mobile phone operating in 3G+ and 4G+ communication standards," Measurement, Vol. 134, 874-887, 2019.

18. Chrissan, D. A. and A. C. Fraser-Smith, "A comparison of low-frequency radio noise amplitude probability distribution models," Radio Sci., Vol. 35, No. 1, 195-208, 2000.

19. Matsumoto, Y., K. Gotoh, and T. Shinozuka, "A method for converting amplitude probability distribution of disturbance from one measurement frequency to another," IEICE Trans. Comm., Vol. 91-B, No. 6, 2010-2019, 2008.

20. Tsukamoto, K., M. Iwanami, and E. Hankui, "Evaluation and analysis of electromagnetic noise coupling in a board with a mixed signal IC," Proc. Intl. Symp. EMC, Tokyo, 2014.

21. Brzozek, C., B. M. Zeleke, M. J. Abramson, K. K. Benke, and G. Benke, "Radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure assessment: A pilot study on mobile phone signal strength and transmitted power levels," J. Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, October 22, 2019.

© Copyright 2010 EMW Publishing. All Rights Reserved