A more realistic model is developed to predict the specific attenuation when electromagnetic signals propagate through dusty media (dust storms). The model is based on Mie approximation for the scattering of electromagnetic signal by a spherical particle. Variation of the dust particles dimensions is considered in this model. Reliable published values for dust dielectric constant are used for computations over the frequency range from 2 GHz to 100 GHz, (i.e. S-band, X band, K-band, Ka-band, Ku-band and W-band). The model outcome is compared with the results from other models suggested in literature. The effect of air humidity on specific attenuation is also investigated.
2. Dong, Q., Y.-L. Li, J. Xu, H. Zhang, and M. Wang, "Backscattering characteristics of millimeter wave radar in sand and dust storms," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 28, No. 9, 1075-1084, 2014.
3. Harb, K., S. Abdillah, and S. Abdul-Jauwad, "Dust & sand (DUSA) storms impact on LEO satellite microwave radio links," 2014 7th Advanced Satellite Multimedia Systems Conference and the 13th Signal Processing for Space Communications Workshop (ASMS/SPSC), 442-447, 2014.
4. Dong, Q.-F., Y.-L. Li, J.-D. Xu, H. Zhang, and M.-J. Wang, "Effect of sand and dust storms on microwave propagation," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 61, No. 2, 910-916, 2012.
5. Sharif, S. M., "Dust storms properties related to microwave signal propagation," University of Khartoum Engineering Journal, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2011.
6. Bong, Q. F., J. I. D. Xu, Y. L. Li, H. Zhang, and M. J.Wang, "Calculation of microwave attenuation effect due to charged sand particles," Journal of Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves, Vol. 32, No. 1, 55-63, 2010.
7. Sharif, S. M., "Clutter and backscattering of dust storms at the X-band," Sudan Engineering Society Journal, Vol. 41, No. 34, 31-36, 1997.
8. Brussaard, G. and P. A. Watson, Atmospheric Modelling and Millimeter Wave Propagation, Ghapman & Hall, UK, 1995.
9. Ansari, A. J. and B. G. Evans, "Microwave propagation in sand and dust storms," IEE Proceedings F (Communications, Radar and Signal Processing), Vol. 129, No. 5, 315-322, 1982.
10. Bashir, S. O. and N. J. McEwan, "Microwave propagation in dust storms: A review," IEE Proceedings H (Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation), Vol. 133, No. 3, 241-247, 1986.
11. Ghobrial, S. I. and S. M. Sharif, "Microwave attenuation and cross polarization in dust storms," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 35, No. 4, 418-425, 1987.
12. Goldhirsh, J., "A parameter review and assessment of attenuation and backscatter properties associated with dust storms over desert regions in the frequency range of 1 to 10 GHz," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 30, No. 6, 1121-1127, 1982.
13. Ahmed, S., A. A. Ali, and M. A. Alhaider, "Airborne dust size analysis for tropospheric propagation of millimetric waves into dust storms," IEEE Trans. on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 25, No. 5, 593-599, 1987.
14. Islam, M. R., Z. E. Elshaikh, O. Khalifa, A. H. M. Zahirul Alom, and S. Khan, "Fade margin analysis due to duststorm based on visibility data measured in a desert," American Journal of Applied Sciences, Vol. 7, No. 4, 551-555, 2010.
15. Collin, R. E., Antenna and Radiowave Propagation, McGraw-Hill, 1985.
16. Goldhirsh, J., "Attenuation and backscatter from derived two-dimensional duststorm model," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 49, No. 12, 1703-1711, 2001.
17. Islam, M. R., Z. E. Elshaikh, O. Elshaikh, O. O. Khalifa, A. H. M. Zahirul Alam, S. Khan, and A. W. Naji, "Prediction of signal attenuation due to duststorms using Mie scattering," IIUM Engineering Journal, Vol. 11, No. 1, 71-87, 2010.
18. Ghobrial, S. I., "Effect of hydroscopic water on dielectric constant of dust at X-band," Electronics Letters, Vol. 16, No. 10, 393-394, 1980.
19. Sharif, S. M. and S. I. Ghobrial, "X-band measurements of dust dielectric constant," Proc. IRSI Commission F, Symp., 143-147, Belgium, 1983.
20. Yang, R., Z. Wu, and J. You, "The study of MMW and MW attenuation considering multiple scattering effect in sand and dust storms at slant paths," International Journal of Infrared and Millimeter Waves, Vol. 24, No. 8, Aug. 2003.
21. Sharif, S. M., "Chemical and mineral composition of dust and its effect on dielectric constant," IEEE Trans. on Geosciences and Remote Sensing, Vol. 33, No. 2, 353-359, 1995.
22. Haddad, S., M. J. Salman, and R. K. Jha, "Effect of dust/sandstorms on some aspects of microwave propagation," Proc. URSI Commission F Symposium, ESA Publication SP-194, 113-116, Louvainla-la-Neuve, Belgium, 1983.
23. Bogland, R. A., Physics of Blown Sand and Desert Dunes, Methuen, London, 1971.
24. Gillete, D. A., "On the production of soil wind erosion aerosols having the potential for long range transport," J. Rech. Atmos, B, 735-744, 1974.
25. Sharif, S. M., "Dust particle-size distribution," International Geosciences and Remote Sensing Symp., IGARRS’87, Ann Arbon, Michigan, USA, 1987.
26. Alhaider, M. A. and A. A. Ali, "Experimental studies on millimeterwave and infrared propagation in arid land: The effect of sand storms," Sixth International Conference on Antennas and Propagation ICAP, 1989.
27. Elshaikh, Z. E. O., M. R. Islam, O. O. Khalifa, and M. J. E. Salami, "Duststorm measurements for the prediction of attenuation on microwave signals in Sudan," International Conference on Computer and Communication Engineering 2008 (ICCCE 08), 1181-1185, Kuala Lumpur, May 2008.
28. Ghobrial, S. I., S. M. Sharif, M. E. Ateem, and M. El Tigani, "Dust storms in Sudan: Intensity and particles; characteristics," Proc. Jordan IEEE’85 Conf., 326-328, Jordan, 1985.
29. Elshaikh, Z. E. O., M. R. Islam, O. O. Khalifa, and H. E. Abd-El-Raouf, "Mathematical model for the prediction of microwave signal attenuation due to duststorm," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 6, 139-153, 2009.