Featured Articles

Vol. 177, 127-137, 2023
Two-Dimensional Acoustic Asymmetric Vortex Focusing Lens by Binary-Phase Mode Converters
Yin Wang Hong-Yu Zou Yu-Jing Lu Shuai Gu Jiao Qian Jian-Ping Xia Yong Ge Hong-Xiang Sun Shou-Qi Yuan Xiao-Jun Liu
Recently, the study of acoustic vortex beams has attracted a great attention owing to its potential applications in medical ultrasound imaging and trapping particles. In some special applications of medical ultrasound, it generally needs the simultaneous realization of vortex focusing and asymmetric propagation in three-dimensional (3D) space. However, the design of a two-dimensional (2D) device with asymmetric acoustic vortex focusing (AAVF) remains a challenge. To overcome it, we experimentally demonstrate a 2D AAVF lens composed of three types of binary-phase mode converters. By simultaneously introducing the phase profiles of acoustic focusing and vortex caused by the mode converters, we design a 2DAAVF lens with the topological charge n = 2, i.e., the sound energy can pass through the lens from the upper side and forms a vortex focus in 3D space; however, it cannot transmit through the lens from the other side. The vortex focusing and asymmetric transmission arise from the phase manipulation and the conversion between the zero-order and first-order waves caused by the mode converters, respectively. The measured fractional bandwidth can reach about 0.19. The proposed lens has the advantages of high-performance AAVF, broad bandwidth and complex sound modulation in 3D space, which provides diverse routes for designing 3D multi-functional sound devices with promising applications in medical ultrasound.
Two-dimensional Acoustic Asymmetric Vortex Focusing Lens by Binary-phase Mode Converters
Vol. 178, 1-12, 2023
Reservoir Computing and Task Performing through Using High-β Lasers with Delayed Optical Feedback
Tao Wang Can Jiang Qing Fang Xingxing Guo Yahui Zhang Chaoyuan Jin Shuiying Xiang
Nonlinear photonic sources including semiconductor lasers have been recently utilized as ideal computation elements for information processing. They supply energy-efficient way and rich dynamics for classification and recognition tasks. In this work, we propose and numerically study the dynamics of complex photonic systems including high-β laser element with delayed feedback and functional current modulation, and employ nonlinear laser dynamics of near-threshold region for the application in reservoir computing. The results indicate a perfect (100%) recognition accuracy for the pattern recognition task and an accuracy about 98% for the Mackey-Glass chaotic sequences prediction. Therefore, the system shows an improvement of performance with low-power consumption. In particular, the error rate is an order of magnitude smaller than previous works. Furthermore, by changing the DC pump, we are able to modify the number of spontaneous emission photons of the system, which then allows us to explore how the laser noise impacts the performance of the reservoir computing system. Through manipulating these variables, we show a deeper understanding on the proposed system, which is helpful for the practical applications of reservoir computing.
Reservoir Computing and Task Performing through Using High-β Lasers with Delayed Optical Feedback
Vol. 177, 33-42, 2023
Systemically Delivered, Deep-Tissue Nanoscopic Light Sources
Xiang Wu Fan Yang Sa Cai Guosong Hong
Light is widely used in life science in both controlling and observing biological processes, yet a long-standing challenge of using light inside the tissue lies in the limited penetration depth of visible light. In the past decade, many in vivo light delivery methods using photonics and materials science tools have been developed, with recent demonstrations of non-invasive, deep-tissue light sources based on systemically delivered luminescent nanomaterials. In this perspective, we provide an overview for the principles of intravital nanoscopic light sources and discuss their advantages over existing methods for in vivo light delivery. We then highlight their recent applications in optogenetics neuromodulation and fluorescent imaging in live animals. We also present an outlook section about the feasibility of combining these non-invasive light sources with other modalities to expand the utilities of light in biology.
Systemically Delivered, Deep-tissue Nanoscopic Light Sources
Vol. 177, 21-32, 2023
Highly Sensitive Temperature Sensing via Photonic Spin Hall Effect
Shuaijie Yuan Jin Yang Yong Wang Yu Chen Xinxing Zhou
In this work, we propose a highly sensitive temperature sensor based on photonic spin Hall effect (PSHE). We find that, by involving the liquid crystal (LC) material, the spin spatial and angular shifts in PSHE are very sensitive to the tiny perturbation of temperature when the incident angle of light beam is near the Brewster and critical angles. Importantly, the phase transition from liquid crystal state to liquid state across the clearing point (CP) will lead to the transition of strong spin-orbit interaction to the weak one. During this process, we reveal that the sensitivity of our designed temperature sensor can reach a giant value with 8.27 cm/K which is one order of magnitude improvement compared with the previous Goos-Hänchen effect-based temperature sensor. This work provides an effective method for precisely determining the position of CP and actively manipulating the spin-orbit interaction.
Highly Sensitive Temperature Sensing via Photonic Spin Hall Effect
Vol. 176, 129-141, 2023
Designing Highly Sensitive Microwave Antenna Sensor with Novel Model for Noninvasive Glucose Measurements
Abhishek Kandwal Louis W. Y. Liu Jingzhen Li Yuhang Liu Huajie Tang Ziheng Ju Tobore Igbe Rohit Jasrotia Zedong Nie
The concentration induced permittivity change involves a dispersion which occurs at the resonant frequency, and is often not predictable by simulation using the traditional Cole-Cole model. To overcome this problem, a new Lorentz's model is proposed as a substitute for the Cole-Cole model. Under this new model, the glucose concentration is expected to be measured at the contact interface in the form of a resonant frequency shift. With the help of the model, a contact-based meander-line antenna sensor (CMS) is realized with a high ``sensitivity of 1.3158 dB/(mmol/L) in terms of d |S11|/dC, or of 17~18 MHz/(mmol/L) in terms of'' dω/dC. The model has been experimentally validated with in-vitro measurements and for proof-of-concept with in-vivo clinical investigations in the microwave frequency. Consistent with the predictions of model, a linear ``correlation is observed not only between the resonant frequency shift and the glucose concentration, but also between the S-parameters magnitude and glucose'' concentration.
Designing Highly Sensitive Microwave Antenna Sensor with Novel Model for Noninvasive Glucose Measurements
Vol. 177, 1-20, 2023
Topological Edge Modes in One-Dimensional Photonic Artificial Structures (Invited)
Jiajun Zheng Zhiwei Guo Yong Sun Haitao Jiang Yunhui Li Hong Chen
In recent years, topological states in photonic artificial structures have attracted great attention due to their robustness against certain disorders and perturbations. To readily understand the underlying principles, topological edge modes in one-dimensional (1D) system have been widely investigated, which bring aboutthe discovery of novel optical phenomena and devices. In this article, we review our recent advances in topological edge modes. We introduce the connection between topological orders and effective electromagnetic parameters of photonic artificial structures in band gaps, discuss experimental demonstration of robust topological modes and their potential applications in wireless power transfer, sensing and field of optics, and give a brief introduction of future opportunities in 1D topological photonics.
Topological Edge Modes in One-dimensional Photonic Artificial Structures (Invited)
Vol. 176, 109-128, 2023
Intelligent Microwave Staring Correlated Imaging
Kui Ying Xinyu Yu Jiana Shen Shi Lu Zhang Yuanyue Guo
Microwave staring correlated imaging (MSCI) is a super-resolution imaging technique based on temporal-spatial stochastic radiation fields (TSSRFs), which requires an accurate calculation of the electromagnetic field at the imaging plane. However, systematic errors always exist in practice, such as the time synchronization and frequency synchronization errors of radar systems, which make it difficult to calculate the required TSSRFs accurately, and this deteriorates the imaging results. Meanwhile, some imaging algorithms have problems such as high computational complexity. In this paper, an intelligent MSCI method based on the deep neural network (DNN) is proposed, which can accomplish imaging directly from the echoes, avoiding the computation of TSSRFs. A multi-level residual convolutional neural network (MRCNN) is developed for the DNN, and simulations and experiments are carried out to obtain the dataset for training and testing the MRCNN. Compared with the conventional MSCI methods, the imaging results verify the effectiveness of intelligent MSCI in terms of imaging quality and computational efficiency.
Intelligent Microwave Staring Correlated Imaging
Vol. 176, 95-108, 2023
A Novel Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) System Based on Deep Learning Method for the Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography
Li-Ye Xiao Jun-Nan Yi Yiqian Mao Xin-Yue Qi Ronghan Hong Qing Huo Liu
As one of the most important technologies for the next generation very-large scale integrated circuit fabrication, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography has attracted more and more attention in recent years. However, in EUV lithography, the optical distortion of the printed image on wafer always has negative impacts on the imaging performance. Thus, to enhance the imaging performance of EUV system, especially for small critical dimensions, in this work, a novel optical proximity correction (OPC) system based on the deep learning technique is proposed. It includes a forward module and an inverse module, where the forward module is employed to fast and accurately map the mask to the corresponding near field of the plane above the stack to help the construction of training dataset for the inverse module operation, and the inverse module is employed to fast and accurately map the target printed image to the corrected mask. Numerical examples demonstrate that compared with traditional full-wave simulation, the forward module can greatly improve the computational efficiency including the required running time and memory. Meanwhile, different from time consuming iterative OPC methods, the corrected mask can be immediately obtained as the target printed image is input using the trained inverse module.
A Novel Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) System Based on Deep Learning Method for the Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography
Vol. 176, 67-93, 2023
A Fast Computation Method of Bands and Band Field Solutions of 3D Periodic Structures Using Broadband Green's Function-Multiple Scattering Theory
Leung Tsang Tien-Hao Liao Shurun Tan
We extended the previous 2D method of BBGF-MST (Broadband Green's function-Multiple Scattering Theory) approach to 3D problems in periodic structures. Band Structures and Band Field Solutions are calculated. A feature of BBGF is that the lattice Green's functions are broadband so that the coefficients of the spherical wave expansions are calculated rapidly for many frequencies. These are then used for speedy calculations of the matrix elements of the KKR (Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker) eigenvalue equation. Using BBGF-MST, a low order matrix eigenvalue equation for the bands is derived. For the first two bands, the dimension of the KKR matrix equation is only 4 by 4. With the use of BBGF, the CPU requirement for the BBGF-MST technique is 0.27 secondson a standard laptop for solving the KKR eigenvalue equation. Numerical results of the band diagrams are illustrated. Higher order spherical waves are next used to calculate the normalized band field solutions for the entire cell.
A Fast Computation Method of Bands and Band Field Solutions of 3D Periodic Structures Using Broadband Green's Function-multiple Scattering Theory
Vol. 176, 55-65, 2023
Inverse-Designed Metamaterials for on-Chip Combinational Optical Logic Circuit
Qingze Tan Chao Qian Hongsheng Chen
Optical analog computing has recently sparked growing interest due to the appealing characteristics of low energy consumption, parallel processing, and ultrafast speed, spawning it complementary to conventional electronic computing. As the basic computing unit, optical logic operation plays a pivotal role for integrated photonics. However, the reported optical logic operations are volumetric and single-functional, which considerably hinders the practical cascadability and complex computing requirement. Here, we propose an on-chip combinational optical logic circuit using inverse design. By precisely engineering the scattering matrix of each small-footprint logic gate, all basic optical logic gates (OR, XOR, NOT, AND, XNOR, NAND, and NOR) are realized. On this foundation, we explore the assembly of these basic logic gates for general-purpose combinational logic circuits, including optical half-adder and code converter. Our work provides a path for the development of integrated, miniaturized, and cascadable photonic processor for future optical computing technologies.
Inverse-designed Metamaterials for On-chip Combinational Optical Logic Circuit
Vol. 176, 45-53, 2023
Commercial-Printed-Circuitry-Compatible Self-Superhydrophobic Antennas Based on Laser Direct Writing
Xiao-Liang Ge Jun-Hao Yang Hang Ren Zhi-Jun Qin Qi-Dai Chen Dong-Dong Han Yong-Lai Zhang Xu Su Hong-Bo Sun
Antennas are essential devices to build everything connected in the era of information. However, the quality of communications would be degraded with the presence of raindrops on the antenna surface. Additional antiwater radomes may generate radiation loss and dispersive impedance mismatch over a broad frequency range, which is not acceptable for next-generation communication systems integrating multiple bands. Here, we report the first experimental demonstration of self-hydrophobic antennas that cover the bands of 1.7 GHz, 3.5 GHz, and 8.5 GHz through a laser-direct-writing treatment. Experimental results show that the return loss, radiation pattern, and efficiency of self-superhydrophobic antennas can be maintained in the mimicked rainy weather. Furthermore, writing hydrophobic nanostructures on both dielectrics and metals is compatible with commercial printed circuitry techniques widely used in industries. Our technique will augment the laser fabrication technology for specialized electromagnetic devices and serve as a powerful and generalized solution for all-weather wireless communication systems.
Commercial-printed-circuitry-compatible Self-superhydrophobic Antennas Based on Laser Direct Writing
Vol. 176, 35-44, 2023
Highly Transparent Tunable Microwave Perfect Absorption for Broadband Microwave Shielding
Dongdong Li Xiaojun Hu Bingtao Gao Wen-Yan Yin Hongsheng Chen Haoliang Qian
To shield undesirable microwave radiation to protect electronic systems and human health, microwave perfect absorbers have attracted increasing interests in recent years. However, the opaque or semitransparent nature of most implemented microwave absorbers limit their applications in optics. Here, we demonstrate a high-performance microwave absorber based on an impedance-assisted Fabry-Pérot resonant cavity with an ITO-dielectric-ITO structure without complex nanofabrication. The device features near-unity absorption (99.5% at 14.4 GHz with a 4.5 GHz effective bandwidth), excellent electromagnetic interference shielding performance (24 dB) in the Ku-band, and high optical transparency (89.0% from 400 nm to 800 nm). The peak absorption frequency of the device can be tuned by changing the thickness of glass slab and sheet resistance of ITO films. Our work provides a low-cost and feasible solution for highperformance optically transparent microwave shielding and stealth, paving the way towards applications in areas of microwave and optics.
Highly Transparent Tunable Microwave Perfect Absorption for Broadband Microwave Shielding
Vol. 176, 25-33, 2023
Optical Neural Networks for Holographic Image Recognition (Invited Paper)
Yiming Feng Junru Niu Yiyun Zhang Yixuan Li Hongsheng Chen Haoliang Qian
Inspired by neural networks based on traditional electronic circuits, optical neural networks (ONNs) show great potential in terms of computing speed and power consumption. Though some progress has been made in devices and schemes, ONNs are still a long way from replacing electronic neural networks in terms of generalizability. Here, we present a complex optical neural network (cONN) for holographic image recognition, within which a high-speed parallel operating unit for complex matrices is proposed, targeting the real-imaginary-splitting and column splitting. Based on the proposed cONN, we have numerically demonstrated the training-recognition process on our cONN for holographic images converted from handwritten digit datasets, achieving an accuracy of 90% based on the back-propagation algorithm. Our training verification integrated architecture will enrich the further development and applications of on-chip photonic matrix computing.
Optical Neural Networks for Holographic Image Recognition (Invited Paper)
Vol. 175, 149-157, 2022
Noninvasive Raman Imaging for Monitoring Mitochondrial Redox State in Septic Rats
Changwei Jiao Zijian Lin Yinghe Xu Sailing He
Raman imaging for a sepsis study is reported here for the first time. We propose a confocal resonance Raman microscopic imager (CRRMI)to measure in vivo the redox state of mitochondria over a surface area of a septic rat. The CRRMI has excellent performance with spectral and spatial resolutions of 0.1 nm and 2 um, respectively. It is found for the first time that the Raman signal related to the mitochondrial dysfunction in sepsis is abnormally large only locally at many points with some random spatial distribution. Our CRRMI can detect the mitochondrial redox state through the skin of a naturally living rat even without the removal of hairs, and overcomes some issues that a pointwise measurement method of Raman signalsmay encounter when monitoring mitochondrial dysfunction of a sepsis rat, such as the fluorescence of hairs, hitting the points without mitochondrial redox metabolic disorder, etc.The present Raman imager can be used for giving an early warning for sepsis. It provides a new method for noninvasive monitoring of mitochondrial redox status in sepsis.
Noninvasive Raman Imaging for Monitoring Mitochondrial Redox State in Septic Rats
Vol. 176, 11-23, 2023
Optically Transparent and Mechanically Flexible Coplanar Waveguide-Fed Wideband Antenna Based on Sub-Micron Thick Micro-Metallic Meshes
Jing Pan Yuanqing Yao Liu Yang Hui Li Sailing He
An optically transparent and flexible coplanar waveguide (CPW)-fed wideband antenna is proposed and demonstrated experimentally based on sub-micron thick micro-metallic meshes (μ-MMs). Due to the high visible transmittance (83.1%) and low sheet resistance (1.75 Ω/sq) of the silver μ-MM with thickness of only 190 nm, the transparent CPW has very low insertion loss and provides a good feed to the high-performance transparent antenna. The measured S11 spectrum of our antenna matches well with that of the opaque counterpart. The measured fractional bandwidth is 22% from 3.4 to 4.25 GHz. Based on numerical modeling, whose accuracy is experimentally verified, the radiation efficiency and the peak gain of our transparent antenna at 3.45 GHz are calculated to be 89.7% and 3.03 dBi, respectively. Besides the good optical and electromagnetic properties, our transparent antenna is also highly flexible. Despite the sub-micron thick μ-MMs, the transparency, radiation efficiency and mechanical properties of our transparent antenna are obviously superior to those of the transparent antennas reported previously, and the overall size and radiation gain are also comparable. Therefore, our transparent antenna has an excellent comprehensive performance, showing great potential for practical applications as well as the emerging applications in the field of flexible and wearable electronics.
Optically Transparent and Mechanically Flexible Coplanar Waveguide-fed Wideband Antenna Based on Sub-micron Thick Micro-metallic Meshes
Vol. 176, 1-10, 2023
Exceptional Ring by Non-Hermitian Sonic Crystals
Bing-Bing Wang Yong Ge Shou-Qi Yuan Ding Jia Hong-Xiang Sun
Exceptional point (EP) and exceptional ring (ER) are unique features for non-Hermitian systems, which have recently attracted great attentions in acoustics due to their rich physical significances and various potential applications. Despite the rapid development about the study of the EP and ER in one-dimensional acoustic systems, the realization of them in two-dimensional (2D) non-Hermitian structures is still facing a great challenge. To overcome this, we numerically and theoretically realize an ER in 2D reciprocal space based on a square-lattice non-Hermitian sonic crystal (SC). By introducing radiation loss caused by circular holes of each resonator in a Hermitian SC, we realize the conversion between a Dirac cone and the ER. Based on the theoretical analysis with the effective Hamiltonian, we obtain that the formation of the ER is closely related to different radiation losses of dipole and quadrupole modes in the resonators. Additionally, in the non-Hermitian SC, two eigenfunctions can be merged into a single self-orthogonal one on the ER, which does not exist in the Hermitian SC. Finally, by verifying the existence of the EP in every direction of 2D reciprocal space, we further demonstrate the ER in the proposed non-Hermitian SC. Our work may provide theoretical schemes and concrete methods for designing various types of non-Hermitian acoustic devices.
Exceptional Ring by Non-Hermitian Sonic Crystals
Vol. 175, 139-147, 2022
Solving Multivariable Equations with Tandem Metamaterial Kernels
Qingze Tan Chao Qian Tong Cai Bin Zheng Hongsheng Chen
A fundamental building block in characterizing and tackling scientific and industrial questions boils down to the ability of quickly solving mathematical equations. However, with the ever-growing volume of information and unsustainable integration growth in electronic processors, a radically new modality for solving equations is highly imminent. Here, we introduce an electromagnetic counterpart to solve multivariable complex equations, where two metamaterialkernels are connected in series to form a closed-loop electromagnetic system. Complex-valued information is carried by electromagnetic fields, and the equation solution for arbitrary input signals can be recursively attained after a number of feedbacks. As an illustration, we present the capability of such system in solving eight complex equations, and inversely design two 4 × 4 metamaterialkernels by topology optimization, whose average element error is reduced to smaller than 10-4. Having accomplished all unknown coefficients with high fidelity, our work represents a conspicuous apparatus for a myriad of enticing applications in ultra-compact signal processing and neuromorphic computing.
Solving Multivariable Equations with Tandem Metamaterial Kernels
Vol. 175, 127-137, 2022
Few-Cycle Electromagnetic Pulses with Finite Energy and Bounded Angular Momentum: Analysis of the Skyrmionic Texture at Focal Plane
Luis Carretero Pablo Acebal Salvador Blaya
Exact solutions to Maxwell equations with topological charge based on a modification to Brittingham's single cycle pulses are analyzed demonstrating that they have finite values of energy, momentum and angular momentum. Moreover, the ratio of angular momentum to energy is bounded due to the dependence of the mean frequency on topological charge. We have also analyzed the skyrmionic texture of the electric and magnetic fields showing that it is possible to obtain skyrmionic numbers higher than one for the magnetic field by means of a superposition of pulses with different topological charges and null skyrmionic number.
Few-cycle Electromagnetic Pulses with Finite Energy and Bounded Angular Momentum: Analysis of the Skyrmionic Texture at Focal Plane
Vol. 175, 105-125, 2022
Miniaturized Photonic and Microwave Integrated Circuits Based on Surface Plasmon Polaritons
Dayue Yao Pei Hang He Hao Chi Zhang Jiawen Zhu Ming Hu Tie-Jun Cui
Photonic integrated circuits (PICs) and microwave integrated circuits (MICs) have been widely studied, but both of them face the challenge of miniaturization. On one hand, the construction of photonic elements requires spaces proportional to wavelength, and on the other hand, electromagnetic compatibility issues make it challenging to reach high-density layouts for MICs. In this paper, we review the research advances of miniaturized PICs and MICs based on surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). By introducing SPPs, miniaturized photonic elements at subwavelength scales are realized on PICs, which can be used for highly integrated interconnects, biosensors, and visible light wireless communications. For MICs, since the metals behave as perfect conductors rather than plasmonic materials at microwave frequencies, plasmonic metamaterials are proposed to support spoof SPPs. Spoof SPPs possess similar characteristics to SPPs and can be used to realize high-density channels on MICs. Moreover, combining the latest theoretical research on SPPs, future tendencies of SPP-based MICs are discussed as well, including further miniaturization, digitization, and systematization.
Vol. 175, 91-104, 2022
Low-Profile High-Gain Wideband Multi-Resonance Microstrip-Fed Slot Antenna with Anisotropic Metasurface
Enyu Zhou Yongzhi Cheng Fu Chen Hui Luo Xiangcheng Li
In this work, a high-gain and wideband microstrip-fed slot antenna is proposed and investigated, which is composed of an anisotropic metasurface (AMS) and an aperture coupled structure. The proposed microstrip antenna with four resonances can be obtained by merging the AMS with an anomalous inverted π-slot feed structure in a low profile (1.07λ0×1.07λ0×0.06λ0). The simulated results indicate that the proposed microstrip antenna can achieve a wide impedance bandwidth of 56.1% from 3.32 to 5.91 GHz, which is verified by experiment. In addition, the measured results show that the peak gain of the proposed microstrip-fed slot antenna is 10.7 dBi at 5.3 GHz, and the relative bandwidth of 3-dBi gain is 42.2% from 3.85 to 5.91 GHz. Compared with previous works, the proposed design has a lower profile while achieving a much wider operating bandwidth, where the four controllable resonance modes offer more possibilities for band expansion. This work shows potential application in integration with high data rate systems.