Radar imaging experiment of ground moving target --- a light rail-way train by Ku-band radar with two receiving channel is introduced. Both coherent and incoherent imaging as well as co-pol and cross-pol interferometric imaging were conducted with SAR amplitude images as well as interferometric --- phase images obtained. In the obtained SAR images, there are 24 stronger scattering centers which correspond to 24 bigger doors of the train. Along-track interferometric --- phase images indicate that the train travels at an increasing speed in one direction and at a decreasing speed in the opposite direction. Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT) is applied to the azimuthal signals to get the instant Doppler frequencies (IDFs), from which one can judge acceleration or deceleration status of the moving train. Electromagnetic scattering characteristics of the train are analyzed according to the SAR images. The estimated speed and length of the train are very well agreed with real situation.
"Ground Moving Train Imaging by Ku-Band Radar with Two Receiving Channels," Progress In Electromagnetics Research,
Vol. 130, 493-512, 2012. doi:10.2528/PIER12060201
1. Perry, R. P., R. C. Dipietro, and R. L. Fante, "SAR imaging of moving targets," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 35, No. 1, 188-200, 1999. doi:10.1109/7.745691
2. Mao, X. H., D. Y. Zhu, L. Ding, and Z. D. Zhu, "Comparative study of RMA and PFA on their responses to moving target," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 110, 103-124, 2010. doi:10.2528/PIER10090607
3. Zhou, F., R. Wu, M. Xing, and Z. Bao, "Approach for single channel SAR ground moving target imaging and motion parameter estimation," IET Radar, Sonar & Navigation, Vol. 1, 59-66, 2007. doi:10.1049/iet-rsn:20060040
4. Zhu, D., Y. Li, and Z. Zhu, "A keystone transform without interpolation for SAR ground moving-target imaging," IEEE Trans. Geoscience & Remote Sensing Letters, Vol. 4, No. 1, 18-22, 2007. doi:10.1109/LGRS.2006.882147
5. Graham, L. C., "Synthetic interferometric radar for topographic mapping," IEEE Proceedings, Vol. 62, 763-768, 1974. doi:10.1109/PROC.1974.9516
6. Wu, B.-I., M. C. Yeung, Y. Hara, and J. A. Kong, "Insar height inversion by using 3-D phase projection with multiple baselines," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 91, 173-193, 2009. doi:10.2528/PIER09020902
7. Li, S., H. Xu, and L. Zhang, "An advanced DSS-SAR InSAR terrain height estimation approach based on baseline decoupling," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 119, 207-224, 2011. doi:10.2528/PIER11042301
8. Tian, B., D. Y. Zhu, and Z. D. Zhu, "A novel moving target detection approach for dual-channel SAR system," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 115, 191-206, 2011.
9. Fan, C.-Y., X.-T. Huang, T. Jin, J.-G. Yang, and D.-X. An, "Novel pre-processing techniques for coherence improving in along-track dual-channel low frequency SAR ," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 128, 171-193, 2012.
10. Zhang, Y., et al., "Moving train imaging by ground-based Ka-band radar," Loughborough Antenna and Propagation Conference (LAPC), 413-416, Loughborough, UK, Nov. 16-18, 2009.
11. Zhang, X., W. Zhai, and Y. Zhang, "A prototype for stepped-frequency SAR dechirp imaging system and experimental verification," Asia-Paci¯c Microwave Conference (APMC), Singapore, Dec. 7-10, 2009.
12. Zhang, Y., X. Zhang, W. Zhai, X. Shi, and X. Gu, "Radar imaging and electromagnetic scattering analysis for moving train by ku-band ground-based interferometric radar," Asia-Pacific Microwave Conference (APMC), Singapore, Dec. 7-10, 2009.
13. Zhang, Y., Y. Deng, W. Zhai, X. Zhang, and J. Jiang, "Time-frequency processing and analysis of radar imaging experiment data for a moving train," The 7th IASTED International Conference on Antennas, Radar and Wave Propagation (ARP), Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, Nov. 1-3, 2010.
14. Yu, L. and Y. Zhang, "Application of the fractional fourier transform to moving train imaging," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 19, 13-23, 2011. doi:10.2528/PIERM11051401
15. Park, J.-I. and K.-T. Kim, "A comparative study on ISAR imaging algorithms for radar target identification," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 108, 155-175, 2010. doi:10.2528/PIER10071901
16. Burkholder, R. J., I. J. Gupta, and J. T. Johnson, "Comparison of monostatic and bistatic radar images," IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, Vol. 45, No. 3, 41-50, 2003. doi:10.1109/MAP.2003.1232162
17. Calvo-Gallego, J. and F. Pérez-Martínez, "Simple traffic surveillance system based on range-doppler radar images," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 125, 343-364, 2012. doi:10.2528/PIER12011809
18. Woo, J.-C., B.-G. Lim, and Y.-S. Kim, "Modification of the recursive sidelobe minimization technique for the range-doppler algorithm of SAR imaging," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 25, No. 13, 1783-1794, 2011. doi:10.1163/156939311797453926
19. Koo, V. C., Y. K. Chan, and H. T. Chuah, "Multiple phase difference method for real-time SAR autofocus," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 20, No. 3, 375-388, 2006. doi:10.1163/156939306775701713
20. Koo, V. C., Y. K. Chan, and H. T. Chuah, "A new autofocus based on sub-aperture approach," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 19, No. 11, 1547-1561, 2005. doi:10.1163/156939305775701912
21. Koo, V. C., T. S. Lim, M. V. C. Rao, and H. T. Chuah, "A GA-based autofocus technique for correcting high-frequency sar phase error," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 18, No. 6, 781-795, 2004. doi:10.1163/156939304323105862
22. Han, S.-K., H.-T. Kim, S.-H. Park, and K.-T. Kim, "Efficient radar target recognition using a combination of range profile and time-frequency analysis ," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 108, 131-140, 2010. doi:10.2528/PIER10071601
23. Nawab, H. and T. F. Quatieri, "Short-time fourier transform," Advanced Topics in Signal Processing, J. S. Lim, and A. V. Oppenheim, Editors, Chapter 6, 289-337, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 1988.
24. Son, J. S., G. Thomas, and B. C. Flores, "Range-Doppler Radar Imaging and Motion Compensation," Artech Hourse, Norwood, 2001.
25. Chen, V. C. and H. Ling, Time-Frequency Transforms for Radar Imaging and Signal Analysis, Artech Hourse, Norwood, 2002.