To solve the low-frequency breakdown inherent from the electric field integral equation (EFIE), an alternative new form of the EFIE is proposed by using the Coulomb-gauge Green's function of quasi-static approximation. Different from the commonly adopted Lorentz-gauge EFIE, the Coulomb-gauge EFIE separates the solenoidal and irrotational surface currents explicitly, which captures inductive and capacitive responses through electrodynamic and electrostatic Green's functions, respectively. By applying existing techniques such as the loop-tree decomposition, frequency normalization, and basis rearrangement, the Coulomb-gauge EFIE also can remedy the low-frequency breakdown problem. Through comparative studies between the Lorentz-gauge and Coulomb-gauge EFIE approaches from mathematical, physical and numerical aspects, the Coulomb-gauge EFIE approach shows the capability of solving low-frequency problems and achieves almost the same accuracy and computational costs compared to the Lorentz-gauge counterpart.
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