To obtain Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC), we would like to study the worst-case electromagnetic eld-induced voltages at the ends of Printed Circuit Board (PCB) traces. With increasing frequencies, modelling these traces as electrically short no longer suffices. Accurate long line models exist, but are too complicated to easily induce the worst case. Therefore, we need a simple analytical model. In this article, we predict the terminal voltages of an electrically long, two-wire transmission line with characteristic loads in vacuum, excited by a linearly polarised plane wave. The model consists of a short line model (one Taylor cell) with an intuitive correction factor for long line effects: the modified Taylor cell. We then adapt the model to the case of a PCB trace above a ground plane, illuminated by a grazing, vertically polarised wave. For this case, we prove that end-fire illumination constitutes the worst case. We derive the worst-case envelope and try to falsify it by measurement in a Gigahertz Transverse Electromagnetic (GTEM) cell.
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