In this paper, a K-band ground-based hyperspectral microwave radiometer for atmospheric sounding is proposed, which improves the profile error and vertical resolution of moisture profiling under the high water vapor condition. The hyperspectral microwave radiometer (80 K-band spectral channels) can observe the rapidly changing weather with high sensitivity and accuracy of brightness temperature by using a stable high-speed receiver and an improved tipping calibration method. By combining several advantages of traditional microwave receiver, the MMIC receiver has good ultra-wideband performance, high linearity, and short measuring time. Moreover, through correcting the calibration parameters of traditional tipping calibration, the proposed calibration method can increase calibration accuracy based on the radiative transfer equation in the atmosphere. Measurement results demonstrate that the radiometer achieves a sensitivity of 0.1 K for 2 s of integration time and an accuracy of better than 0.77 K. For the water vapor profile, the variational retrievals method is used to extract the redundant information under the microwave hyperspectral condition. Preliminary comparisons of measured water vapor profiles with traditional results show good improvement of the profile error and vertical resolution.
2. Chalon, G., F. Cayla, and D. Diebel, "IASI: An advanced sounder for operational meteorology," Proc. 52nd Congr. IAF, 1-5, Oct. 2001.
3. Smith, W. L., H. Revercomb, G. Bingham, A. Larar, H. Huang, D. Zhou, J. Li, X. Liu, and S. Kireev, "Evolution, current capabilities, and future advance in satellite nadir viewing ultra-spectral IR sounding of the lower atmosphere," Atmos. Chem. Phys., Vol. 9, No. 15, 5563-5574, 2009.
4. Blackwell, W. J., et al., "Combined microwave and hyperspectral infrared retrievals of atmospheric profiles in the presence of clouds using nonlinear stochastic methods ," Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), 2814-2817, Barcelona, Spain, Jul. 2007.
5. Blackwell, W. J., et al., "Hyperspectral microwave atmospheric sounding," IEEE Trans. on Geosci. Remote Sens., Vol. 49, No. 1, 128-142, Jan. 2011.
6. Hotopan, G. R., S. Ver-Hoeye, C. Vazquez-Antuna, R. Camblor-Diaz, M. Fernandez-Garcia, F. Las Heras Andres, P. Alvarez, and R. Menéndez, "Millimeter wave microstrip mixer based on graphene," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 118, 57-69, 2011.
7. Guo, J., Z. Xu, C. Qian, and W.-B. Dou, "Design of a microstrip balanced mixer for satellite communication," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 115, 289-301, 2011.
8. Wan, Q. and C. Wang, "A wideband CMOS current-mode down-conversion mixer for multi-standard receivers," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 129, 421-437, 2012.
9. Aluigi, L., L. Roselli, S. M. White, and F. Alimenti, "System-on-chip 36.8 GHz radiometer for space-based observation of solar flares: Feasibility study in 0.25 μm SiGe BiCMOS technology," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 130, 347-368, 2012.
10. De la Morena-Álvarez-Palencia, C. and M. Burgos-Garcia, "Four-octave six-port receiver and its calibration for broadband communications and software defined radios ," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 116, 1-21, 2011.
11. Moscoso-Martir, A., I. Molina-Fernandez, and A. Ortega-Monux, "Signal constellation distortion and BER degradation due to hardware impairments in six-port receivers with analog I/Q generation," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 121, 225-247, 2011.
12. Bonafoni, S., F. Alimenti, G. Angelucci, and G. Tasselli, "Microwave radiometry imaging for forest fire detection: A simulation study," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 112, 77-92, 2011.
13. Asimakis, N. P., I. S. Karanasiou, and N. K. Uzunoglu, "Non-invasive microwave radiometric system for intracranial applications: A study using the conformal L-notch microstrip patch antenna," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 117, 83-101, 2011.
14. Giamalaki, M. I. and I. S. Karanasiou, "Enhancement of a microwave radiometry imaging system's performance using left handed materials," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 117, 253-265, 2011.
15. Kim, W.-G., N.-W. Moon, J. Kang, and Y.-H. Kim, "Loss measuring of large aperture quasi-optics for W-band imaging radiometer system ," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 125, 295-309, 2012.
16. D'Orazio, A., et al., "Optimisation of tipping curve calibration of microwave radiometer," Electronics Letters, Vol. 39, No. 12, 905-906, Jun. 2003.
17. Han, Y., et al., "Analysis and improvement of tipping calibration for ground-based microwave radiometers," IEEE Trans. on Geosci. Remote Sens., Vol. 38, No. 3, 1260-1276, May 2000.
18. Liebe, H. J., et al., "Propagation modeling of moist air and suspended waterice particles at frequencies below 1000 GHz," Atmospheric Propagation Effects through Natural and Manmade Obscurants for Visible to mm-wave Radiation , Palma De Mallorca, Spain, May 1993.
19. Hewison, T. J., "1D-VAR retrieval of temperature and humidity pro¯les from a ground-based microwave radiometer," IEEE Trans. on Geosci. Remote Sens., Vol. 45, No. 7, 2163-2168, Jul. 2007.
20. Hewison, T. J., Profiling temperature and humidity by ground-based microwave radiometers, Ph. D. Dissertation, The University of Reading, Whiteknights, United Kingdom, 2006.
21. Scheve, T. M. and C. T. Swift, "Profiling atmospheric water vapor with a K-band spectral radiometer," IEEE Trans. on Geosci. Remote Sens., Vol. 37, No. 3, Part 2, 1719-1729, May 1999.
22. Chang, L., H. Zhou, L.-L. Chen, X.-Z. Xiong, and C. Liao, "The fine-grained parallel micro-genetic algorithm and its application to broadband conical corrugated-horn antenna ," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 138, 599-611, 2013.
23. Chen, C.-Y. and C.-C. Lin, "The design and fabrication of a highly compact microstrip dual-band bandpass filter," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 112, 299-307, 2011.
24. Rezaee, P., M. Tayarani, and R. Knöchel, "Active learning method for the determination of coupling factor and external Q in microstrip filter design," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 120, 459-479, 2011.
25. Yang, B., G. Mehdi, A. Hu, Y. Xie, X. Yao, J. Zhang, C. Zheng, and J. Miao, "The round-ended design and measurement of all symmetric edge-coupled bandpass filter," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 38, 191-203, 2013.
26. Chang, L., C. Liao, L.-L. Chen, W. Lin, X. Zheng, and Y.-L. Wu, "Design of an ultra-wideband power divider via the coarse-grained parallel micro-genetic algorithm," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 124, 425-440, 2012.
27. Wang, D., H. Zhang, T. Xu, H. Wang, and G. Zhang, "Design and optimization of equal split broadband microstrip Wilkinson power divider using enhanced particle swarm optimization algorithm," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 118, 321-334, 2011.
28. Li, B., X. Wu, N. Yang, and W. Wu, "Dual-band equal/unequal Wilkinson power dividers based on coupled-line section with short-circuited stub," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 111, 163-178, 2011.
29. Amaduzzi, L. and M. Tinti, "Low cost components radiometer implementation for human microwave electromagnetic field emission detection ," Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 23, 9-18, 2011.
30. Midford, T. A., J. J. Wooldridge, and R. L. Sturdivant, "The evolution of packages for monolithic microwave and millimeter-wave circuits," IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propag., Vol. 43, No. 9, 983-991, Sep. 1995.
31. Wein, D. S., "Advanced ceramic packaging for microwave and millimeter wave applications," IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propag., Vol. 43, No. 9, 940-948, Sep. 1995.
32. Klemetsen, O., Y. Birkelund, S. K. Jacobsen, P. F. Maccarini, and P. R. Stauffer, "Design of medical radiometer front-end for improved performance," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 27, 289-306, 2011.
33. Ulaby, F. T., et al., Microwave Remote Sensing: Active and Passive, Volume I: Fundamentals and Radiometry, Artech House Publishers, Mar. 1986.
34. Iturbide-Sanchez, F. and S. Padmanabhan, "A miniaturized spectrometer radiometer based on MMIC technology for tropospheric water vapor profiling," IEEE Trans. on Geosci. Remote Sens., Vol. 45, No. 7, 2181-2194, Jul. 2007.
35. Janssen, M. A., "An introduction to the passive microwave remote sensing of atmospheres," Atmospheric Remote Sensing by Microwave Radiometry, M. A. Janssen (ed.), 1-35, Wiley, New York, 1993.
36. Schneebeli, M. and C. Mätzler, "A calibration scheme for microwave radiometers using tipping curves and Kalman filtering ," IEEE Trans. on Geosci. Remote Sens., Vol. 47, No. 12, 4201-4209, Dec. 2009.